IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Control Aversion and The Search for External Financing in Swedish SMEs


  • Björn Berggren


  • Christer Olofsson
  • Lars Silver


The discussion on growth (see Storey, 1997) and control aversion (Cressy, 1995; Chittenden et al., 1996; Cressy and Olofsson, 1996) in small and medium sized firms has been attracting an increasing amount of attention. Our purpose in this article is to identify under what circumstances small and medium sized firms are prepared to accept outside control in the business firm in order to grow. In the article it is argued that technology development, financial strength, size and perceived need to grow, change firms attitudes towards external financiers. The change in attitude towards more openness eventually leads to an actual behaviour where the principals choose to apply for external finance in the form of bank loans. A linear structural equation modelling program, LISREL, is used to analyse a sample of 281 Swedish firms. The firms all have less than 200 employees, and the sample includes both manufacturing and service firms. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Suggested Citation

  • Björn Berggren & Christer Olofsson & Lars Silver, 2000. "Control Aversion and The Search for External Financing in Swedish SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 233-242, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:15:y:2000:i:3:p:233-242
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1008153428618

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. de Meza, David & Southey, Clive, 1996. "The Borrower's Curse: Optimism, Finance and Entrepreneurship," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 375-386, March.
    2. JS Armstrong & Terry Overton, 2005. "Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys," General Economics and Teaching 0502044, EconWPA.
    3. Hall, John & Hofer, Charles W., 1993. "Venture capitalists' decision criteria in new venture evaluation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 25-42, January.
    4. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    5. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
    6. Oakey, RP, 1984. "Finance and innovation in British small independent firms," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 113-124.
    7. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. K. Baeyens & S. Manigart, 2006. "Who gets private equity? The role of debt capacity, growth and intangible assets," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 06/368, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    2. Cécile Carpentier & Jean-Marc Suret, 2005. "On the Usefulness of Tax Incentives for Business Angels and SME Owners: An Empirical Analysis," CIRANO Working Papers 2005s-13, CIRANO.
    3. Milen Baltov, 2008. "Challenges in Front of the Financing of the Innovation Active Small and Medium-sized Enterprises – Regional Prospects," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 109-131.
    4. Cécile Carpentier & Jean-François L’Her & Jean-Marc Suret, 2012. "Seasoned equity offerings by small and medium-sized enterprises," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 449-465, May.
    5. Péter Hernádi & Mihály Ormos, 2012. "What managers think of capital structure and how they act: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 47-71, December.
    6. Adli Abouzeedan, 2003. "Financing Swedish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Methods, Problems and Impact," ERSA conference papers ersa03p34, European Regional Science Association.
    7. Brian Lucey & Colm KEarney & Ciaran MacAnBhaird, 2012. "Culture and capital structure in small and medium sized firms," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp419, IIIS.
    8. Mac an Bhaird, Ciarán & Lucey, Brian, 2010. "An empirical investigation of the financial growth life cycle," MPRA Paper 61948, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Bergner, Sören Martin & Bräutigam, Rainer & Evers, Maria Theresia & Spengel, Christoph, 2017. "The use of SME tax incentives in the European Union," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-006, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    10. Ciarán mac an Bhaird & Brian Lucey, 2010. "Determinants of capital structure in Irish SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 357-375, October.
    11. Arturo Haro-de-Rosario & María del Carmen Caba-Pérez & Leonardo Cazorla-Papis, 2016. "The impact of venture capital on investee companies: evidence from Spain," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 577-600, July.
    12. Van Campenhout, Geert & Van Caneghem, Tom, 2009. "Information Availability, Information Quality and the Financial Structure of Belgian SME's," Working Papers 2009/27, Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economie en Management.
    13. Hogan, Teresa & Hutson, Elaine, 2005. "Capital structure in new technology-based firms: Evidence from the Irish software sector," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 369-387, February.
    14. Tom Caneghem & Geert Campenhout, 2012. "Quantity and quality of information and SME financial structure," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 341-358, September.
    15. Cécile Carpentier & Jean-François L'Her & Jean-Marc Suret, 2010. "Seasoned Equity Offerings by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises," CIRANO Working Papers 2010s-07, CIRANO.
    16. Cécile Carpentier & Jean-Marc Suret, 2005. "The Indirect Costs of Venture Capital in Canada," CIRANO Working Papers 2005s-25, CIRANO.
    17. Jun Du & Alessandra Guariglia & Alexander Newman, "undated". "Does social capital affect the financing decisions of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises?," Discussion Papers 10/13, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    18. Bruce Dwyer & Bernice Kotey, 2015. "Financing SME Growth: The Role of the National Stock Exchange of Australia and Business Advisors," Australian Accounting Review, CPA Australia, vol. 25(2), pages 114-123, June.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:15:y:2000:i:3:p:233-242. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.