IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Energy Prices and Carbon Taxes under Uncertainty about Global Warming


  • Franz Wirl



This paper extends the strategic interactions between producers of fossil fuels concerned about their profits and a taxing government concerned about the consumers’ welfare for uncertainty: global warming follows an Itô -process. Stochasticity requires to differentiate between reversible and irreversible emissions in contrast to the deterministic version. The unconstrained (= reversible) case allows for a closed form solution but not the more realistic and constrained case. Nevertheless interesting analytical properties (e.g. about when to stop emissions, implicit conservation due to monopolistic supply) are derived and complemented by a numerical example. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Suggested Citation

  • Franz Wirl, 2007. "Energy Prices and Carbon Taxes under Uncertainty about Global Warming," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 36(3), pages 313-340, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:36:y:2007:i:3:p:313-340
    DOI: 10.1007/s10640-006-9022-2

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kiminori Matsuyama, 1991. "Increasing Returns, Industrialization, and Indeterminacy of Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 617-650.
    2. Tsutsui, Shunichi & Mino, Kazuo, 1990. "Nonlinear strategies in dynamic duopolistic competition with sticky prices," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 136-161, October.
    3. Skiba, A K, 1978. "Optimal Growth with a Convex-Concave Production Function," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(3), pages 527-539, May.
    4. Frederick Ploeg & Aart Zeeuw, 1992. "International aspects of pollution control," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 2(2), pages 117-139, March.
    5. Paul Krugman, 1991. "History versus Expectations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 651-667.
    6. Brock, William A. & de Zeeuw, Aart, 2002. "The repeated lake game," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 109-114, June.
    7. Dockner Engelbert J. & Van Long Ngo, 1993. "International Pollution Control: Cooperative versus Noncooperative Strategies," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 13-29, July.
    8. Monderer, Dov & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1996. "Potential Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 124-143, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Leizarowitz, Arie & Tsur, Yacov, 2012. "Renewable resource management with stochastic recharge and environmental threats," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 736-753.
    2. Leizarowitz, Arie & Tsur, Yacov, 2009. "Resource Management with Stochastic Recharge and Environmental Threats," Discussion Papers 52784, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
    3. Zhang, Xiao-Bing & Zhu, Lei, 2017. "Strategic carbon taxation and energy pricing under the threat of climate tipping events," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 352-363.
    4. Zhang, Xiao-Bing, 2014. "Strategic Carbon Taxation and Energy Pricing: The Role of Innovation," Working Papers in Economics 589, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    5. Gallaway, Terrel & Olsen, Reed N. & Mitchell, David M., 2010. "The economics of global light pollution," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 658-665, January.
    6. Wirl, Franz, 2012. "Global warming: Prices versus quantities from a strategic point of view," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 217-229.
    7. Wirl, Franz, 2011. "Taxing incumbent monopoly to foster entry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 388-398, May.

    More about this item


    asymmetric; dynamic game; irreversibility; preemption; rent contest; stochastic; stock externalities; Q4; D81; C61; H23;

    JEL classification:

    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:36:y:2007:i:3:p:313-340. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.