IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Empirical relationship between total consumption-GDP ratio and per capita income for different metals of a series of industrialised nations


  • Antonio Focacci


This paper carries out a study of the interrelation between total consumption-GDP ratio of different key metals (aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and zinc) and per capita income investigating if the environmental Kuznets' curve (EKC) could be considered – in empirical terms – as a possible explanatory model of past and current trends. Such an analysis is proposed through a cross-country evaluation for some industrialised countries (France, Italy, Japan, UK and USA) and for a long time span covering a period of 35 years (1960–1995). In addition to elaborations related to specific currencies, calculations by using PPPs are also proposed in order to show more detailed information about international situations. Without any pretension of an exhaustive study, such an attempt presents a wide series of data in order to enrich the discussion on 'dematerialisation' by bringing analytical values and elaborating specific country situations using the most widely employed macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Antonio Focacci, 2005. "Empirical relationship between total consumption-GDP ratio and per capita income for different metals of a series of industrialised nations," International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(4), pages 347-377.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:ijetma:v:5:y:2005:i:4:p:347-377

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Phillip Crowson, 2018. "Intensity of use reexamined," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 31(1), pages 61-70, May.
    2. Baffes,John & Kabundi,Alain Ntumba & Nagle,Peter Stephen Oliver, 2020. "The Role of Income and Substitution in Commodity Demand," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9122, The World Bank.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ids:ijetma:v:5:y:2005:i:4:p:347-377. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Carmel O'Grady) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Carmel O'Grady to update the entry or send us the correct email address. General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.