IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Bank capital requirements for market risk: the internal models approach


  • Darryll Hendricks
  • Beverly Hirtle


The increases prominence of trading activities at many large banking companies has highlighted bank exposure to market risk-the risk of loss from adverse movements in financial market rates and prices. In response, bank supervisors in the United States and abroad have developed a new set of capital requirements to ensure that banks have adequate capital resources to address market risk. This paper offers an overview of the new requirements, giving particular attention to their most innovative feature: a capital charge calculated for each bank using the output of that bank's internal risk measurement model. The authors contend that the use of internal models should lead to regulatory capital charges that conform more closely to banks' true risk exposures. In addition, the information generated by the models should allow supervisors and market participants to compare risk exposures over time and across institutions.

Suggested Citation

  • Darryll Hendricks & Beverly Hirtle, 1997. "Bank capital requirements for market risk: the internal models approach," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Dec, pages 1-12.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednep:y:1997:i:dec:p:1-12:n:v.3no.4

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arturo Estrella, 1995. "A prolegomenon to future capital requirements," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 1-12.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Hirtle, Beverly, 2016. "Public disclosure and risk-adjusted performance at bank holding companies," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Aug, pages 151-173.
    2. Jose A. Lopez, 1999. "Methods for evaluating value-at-risk estimates," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 3-17.
    3. Santos, André A.P. & Nogales, Francisco J. & Ruiz, Esther & Dijk, Dick Van, 2012. "Optimal portfolios with minimum capital requirements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1928-1942.
    4. David VanHoose, 2006. "Bank Behavior Under Capital Regulation: What Does The Academic Literature Tell Us?," NFI Working Papers 2006-WP-04, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
    5. Jose A. Lopez, 1996. "Regulatory Evaluation of Value-at-Risk Models," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-51, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    6. David VanHoose, 2008. "Bank Capital Regulation, Economic Stability, and Monetary Policy: What Does the Academic Literature Tell Us?," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 36(1), pages 1-14, March.
    7. Frésard, Laurent & Pérignon, Christophe & Wilhelmsson, Anders, 2011. "The pernicious effects of contaminated data in risk management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2569-2583, October.
    8. Beverly Hirtle, 1998. "Bank holding company capital ratios and shareholder payouts," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 4(Sep).
    9. Pérignon, Christophe & Deng, Zi Yin & Wang, Zhi Jun, 2008. "Do banks overstate their Value-at-Risk?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 783-794, May.
    10. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    11. Jones, David & Mingo, John, 1999. "Credit risk modeling and internal capital allocation processes: implications for a models-based regulatory bank capital standard," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 79-108, March.
    12. Victoria Geyfman, 2005. "Risk-adjusted performance measures at bank holding companies with section 20 subsidiaries," Working Papers 05-26, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    13. Andrew Kuritzkes & Til Schuermann & Scott M. Weiner, 2002. "Risk Measurement, Risk Management and Capital Adequacy in Financial Conglomerates," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 03-02, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    14. Knorr Andreas, 1999. "Staatliche Bankenaufsicht – eine effiziente Institution?," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 50(1), pages 345-370, January.
    15. Agata Gemzik-Salwach, 2012. "The Use Of A Value At Risk Measure For The Analysis Of Bank Interest Margins," "e-Finanse", University of Information Technology and Management, Institute of Financial Research and Analysis, vol. 8(4), pages 15-29, February.
    16. Vladimir Rankovic & Mikica Drenovak & Branko Uroševic & Ranko Jelic, 2016. "Mean Univariate-GARCH VaR Portfolio Optimization: Actual Portfolio Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 5731, CESifo Group Munich.
    17. Flavio Bazzana, 2001. "I modelli interni per la valutazione del rischio di mercato secondo l'approccio del Value at Risk," Alea Tech Reports 011, Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Italy, revised 14 Jun 2008.
    18. Pérignon, Christophe & Smith, Daniel R., 2010. "The level and quality of Value-at-Risk disclosure by commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 362-377, February.
    19. Ho Hwang, Jong, 2013. "A proposal for an open-source financial risk model," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 59298, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    20. Martin, Anna D. & Mauer, Laurence J., 2003. "Exchange rate exposures of US banks: A cash flow-based methodology," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 851-865, May.
    21. Beverly Hirtle & Mark E. Levonian & Marc R. Saidenberg & Stefan Walter & David M. Wright, 2001. "Using credit risk models for regulatory capital: issues and options," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Mar, pages 19-36.
    22. Arturo Estrella, 1998. "Formulas or supervision? Remarks on the future of regulatory capital," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 191-200.
    23. Kaplanski, Guy & Levy, Haim, 2007. "Basel's value-at-risk capital requirement regulation: An efficiency analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1887-1906, June.

    More about this item


    Bank capital ; Risk;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fednep:y:1997:i:dec:p:1-12:n:v.3no.4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Amy Farber). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.