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Design and implementation of efficient transit networks: Procedure, case study and validity test

Author

Listed:
  • Estrada, M.
  • Roca-Riu, M.
  • Badia, H.
  • Robusté, F.
  • Daganzo, C.F.

Abstract

This paper presents and tests a method to design high-performance transit networks. The method produces conceptual plans for geometric idealizations of a particular city that are later adapted to the real conditions. These conceptual plans are generalizations of the hybrid network concept proposed in Daganzo (2010). The best plan for a specific application is chosen via optimization. The objective function is composed of analytic formulae for a concept's agency cost and user level of service. These formulae include as parameters key demand-side attributes of the city, assumed to be rectangular, and supply-side attributes of the transit technology. They also include as decision variables the system's line and stop spacings, the degree to which it focuses passenger trips on the city center, and the service headway. These decision variables are sufficient to define an idealized geometric layout of the system and an operating plan. This layout-operating plan is then used as a design target when developing the real, detailed master plan. Ultimately, the latter is simulated to obtain more accurate cost and level of service estimates. This process has been applied to design a high performance bus (HPB) network for Barcelona (Spain). The idealized solution for Barcelona includes 182Â km of one-way infrastructure, uses 250 vehicles and costs 42,489Â [euro]/h to build and run. These figures only amount to about one third of the agency resources and cost currently used to provide bus service. A detailed design that resembles this target and conforms to the peculiarities of the city is also presented and simulated. The agency cost and user level of service metrics of the simulated system differ from those of the idealized model by less than 10%. Although the designed and simulated HPB systems provide sub-optimal spatial coverage because Barcelona lacks suitable streets, the level of service is good. Simulations suggest that if the proposed system was implemented side-by-side with the current one, it would capture most of the demand.

Suggested Citation

  • Estrada, M. & Roca-Riu, M. & Badia, H. & Robusté, F. & Daganzo, C.F., 2011. "Design and implementation of efficient transit networks: Procedure, case study and validity test," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 935-950, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:45:y:2011:i:9:p:935-950
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ceder, Avishai & Wilson, Nigel H. M., 1986. "Bus network design," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 331-344, August.
    2. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2010. "Structure of competitive transit networks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 434-446, May.
    3. Mandl, Christoph E., 1980. "Evaluation and optimization of urban public transportation networks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 5(6), pages 396-404, December.
    4. Eichler, Michael & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2006. "Bus lanes with intermittent priority: Strategy formulae and an evaluation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 40(9), pages 731-744, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Gu, Weihua & Amini, Zahra & Cassidy, Michael J., 2016. "Exploring alternative service schemes for busy transit corridors," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 93(PA), pages 126-145.
    2. Badia, Hugo & Estrada, Miquel & Robusté, Francesc, 2014. "Competitive transit network design in cities with radial street patterns," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 161-181.
    3. repec:eee:transe:v:103:y:2017:i:c:p:261-285 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Badia, Hugo & Estrada, Miquel & Robusté, Francesc, 2016. "Bus network structure and mobility pattern: A monocentric analytical approach on a grid street layout," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 93(PA), pages 37-56.
    5. repec:eee:transe:v:110:y:2018:i:c:p:71-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Chen, Haoyu & Gu, Weihua & Cassidy, Michael J. & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2015. "Optimal transit service atop ring-radial and grid street networks: A continuum approximation design method and comparisons," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 81(P3), pages 755-774.
    7. Madanat, Samer & Horvath , Arpad & Mao, Chao & Cheng, Han, 2016. "Potential Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Optimizing Urban Transit NetworksÂ," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt25x1b693, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    8. Gschwender, Antonio & Jara-Díaz, Sergio & Bravo, Claudia, 2016. "Feeder-trunk or direct lines? Economies of density, transfer costs and transit structure in an urban context," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 209-222.
    9. repec:eee:transa:v:103:y:2017:i:c:p:83-94 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Tirachini, Alejandro, 2014. "The economics and engineering of bus stops: Spacing, design and congestion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 37-57.
    11. Sivakumaran, Karthik & Li, Yuwei & Cassidy, Michael & Madanat, Samer, 2014. "Access and the choice of transit technology," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 204-221.
    12. repec:eee:transb:v:104:y:2017:i:c:p:733-756 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Ouyang, Yanfeng & Nourbakhsh, Seyed Mohammad & Cassidy, Michael J., 2014. "Continuum approximation approach to bus network design under spatially heterogeneous demand," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 333-344.
    14. Ibarra-Rojas, O.J. & Delgado, F. & Giesen, R. & Muñoz, J.C., 2015. "Planning, operation, and control of bus transport systems: A literature review," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 38-75.
    15. Ellegood, William A. & Campbell, James F. & North, Jeremy, 2015. "Continuous approximation models for mixed load school bus routing," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 182-198.
    16. Pternea, Moschoula & Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos & Karlaftis, Matthew G., 2015. "Sustainable urban transit network design," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 276-291.
    17. Moccia, Luigi & Laporte, Gilbert, 2016. "Improved models for technology choice in a transit corridor with fixed demand," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 245-270.

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