IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Assessing the importance of international tourism for the Turkish economy: A social accounting matrix analysis


  • Akkemik, K. Ali


The international tourism sector has grown rapidly in Turkey since the 1980s and Turkey ranks among the top ten countries in terms of tourist arrivals and receipts. Previous studies on international tourism in Turkey are partial equilibrium studies which emphasized the importance of the sector for foreign exchange earnings, employment creation, and economic growth. The social accounting matrix (SAM) modeling approach is superior to partial equilibrium analysis as it takes into account intersectoral linkages. This paper analyzes the contribution of international tourism to the Turkish economy using two SAMs for 1996 and 2002, respectively. Two analyses are conducted using the SAM impact model: (i) sectoral comparison of GDP elasticities, and (ii) SAM impact analysis of international tourism on output, value-added, and employment. The results show that the GDP elasticity of international tourism is relatively low and the impact of foreign tourist expenditures on domestic production, value-added (GDP), and employment in Turkey are modest. The results imply the possibility of leakage of foreign tourist expenditures out of the economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Akkemik, K. Ali, 2012. "Assessing the importance of international tourism for the Turkish economy: A social accounting matrix analysis," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 790-801.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:touman:v:33:y:2012:i:4:p:790-801
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.09.002

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Tadayuki Hara, 2012. "Introduction to Tourism Satellite Accounts," Chapters, in: Murat Kasimoglu (ed.), Strategies for Tourism Industry - Micro and Macro Perspectives, IntechOpen.
    2. Defourny, Jacques & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "Structural Path Analysis and Multiplier Decomposition within a Social Accounting Matrix Framework," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(373), pages 111-136, March.
    3. Jacint Balaguer & Manuel Cantavella-Jorda, 2002. "Tourism as a long-run economic growth factor: the Spanish case," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(7), pages 877-884.
    4. Isabel Cortés-Jiménez & Manuela Pulina & Carme Riera i Prunera & Manuel Artís, 2009. "Tourism and Exports as a means of Growth," IREA Working Papers 200910, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised May 2009.
    5. Sherman Robinson & Andrea Cattaneo & Moataz El-Said, 2001. "Updating and Estimating a Social Accounting Matrix Using Cross Entropy Methods," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 47-64.
    6. Robinson, Sherman & El-Said, Moataz, 2000. "GAMS code for estimating a social accounting matrix (SAM) using cross entropy methods (CE)," TMD discussion papers 64, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. Bichaka Fayissa & Christian Nsiah & Badassa Tadasse, 2008. "Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth and Development in Africa," Tourism Economics, , vol. 14(4), pages 807-818, December.
    8. Bichaka Fayissa & Christian Nsiah & Badassa Tadasse, 2009. "Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries(LAC): Further Empirical Evidence," Working Papers 200902, Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Economics and Finance.
    9. Lokman Gunduz & Abdulnasser Hatemi-J, 2005. "Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(8), pages 499-504.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Njoya, Eric Tchouamou & Nikitas, Alexandros, 2020. "The role of air transport in employment creation and inclusive growth in the Global South: The case of South Africa," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    2. Oscar Claveria & Enric Monte & Salvador Torra, 2015. "“Multiple-input multiple-output vs. single-input single-output neural network forecasting”," IREA Working Papers 201502, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Jan 2015.
    3. Panayiotis Drakakis & Athanasios Papadaskalopoulos & Dimitrios Lagos, 2021. "Multipliers and impacts of active sport tourism in the Greek region of Messinia," Tourism Economics, , vol. 27(3), pages 527-547, May.
    4. Pilar Campoy-Muñoz & M. Alejandro Cardenete & M. Carmen Delgado, 2017. "Assessing the economic impact of a cultural heritage site using social accounting matrices," Tourism Economics, , vol. 23(4), pages 874-881, June.
    5. Kamalbek KARIMSAKOV & Metin KARADAG, 2017. "A Social Accounting Matrix For Kyrgyzstan For 2010," Ege Academic Review, Ege University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, vol. 17(1), pages 23-32.
    6. Sergej Gricar & Stefan Bojnec & Vesna Karadzic & Svetlana Rakocevic, 2016. "Comparative Analysis of Tourism-Led Growth in Slovenia and Montenegro," Managing Global Transitions, University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, vol. 14(1 (Spring), pages 75-92.
    7. Bisharat Hussain Chang & Khalil Ahmed Channa & Emmanuel Uche & Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf & Osamah Waheed Ali, 2022. "Analyzing the impacts of terrorism on innovation activity: A cross country empirical study," Advances in Decision Sciences, Asia University, Taiwan, vol. 26(Special), pages 124-161, December.
    8. K.Ali Akkemik & Erisa Dautaj Şenerdem, 2014. "CGE Assessment of Tourism Policies in Turkey," ERSA conference papers ersa14p891, European Regional Science Association.
    9. Mohd Nor, Norma Azuli & Mohd Salleh, Norlida Hanim & Falatehan, A Faroby, 2021. "The Effect of Tourism Expenditure on the Economy: A New Evidence," Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, vol. 55(3), pages 23-34.
    10. Allan, Grant J. & Lecca, Patrizio & Swales, Kim, 2017. "The impacts of temporary but anticipated tourism spending: An application to the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 325-337.
    11. Melissa De La Ossa & Raúl Castro & Javier Pérez, 2015. "Impactos Económicos de Proyectos de Renovación Urbana en Bogotá: Un Análisis a partir de los Multiplicadores de la SAM 2010," Documentos CEDE 13877, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía, CEDE.
    12. Chantha Hor, 2021. "Assessing the dynamic tourism inter-industry linkages and economic structural changes in Cambodia’s economy," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 10(1), pages 1-24, December.
    13. Jim McFarlane & Bligh Grant & Boyd Blackwell & Stuart Mounter, 2017. "Combining amenity with experience," Tourism Economics, , vol. 23(5), pages 1076-1095, August.
    14. Agbahey, Johanes U. I. & Siddig, Khalid & Grethe, Harald, 2016. "A 2011 Social Accounting Matrix for the West Bank with detailed representation of households and labour accounts," Working Paper Series 245157, Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    15. Robertico Croes & Manuel A. Rivera, 2017. "Tourism’s potential to benefit the poor," Tourism Economics, , vol. 23(1), pages 29-48, February.
    16. Christian Myles Rogerson, 2017. "The Economic Geography of South Africa’s International Tourism Industry," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 13(2), pages 66-80, April.
    17. Xiang Wei & Hailin Qu & Emily Ma, 2013. "Modelling Tourism Employment in China," Tourism Economics, , vol. 19(5), pages 1123-1138, October.
    18. Jia Liu & Jizu Li & Xilong Yao, 2019. "The Economic Effects of the Development of the Renewable Energy Industry in China," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(9), pages 1-18, May.
    19. Olya, Hossein GT & Mehran, Javaneh, 2017. "Modelling tourism expenditure using complexity theory," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 147-158.
    20. Melisa de la Ossa & Javier Pérez Burgos & Raúl Castro R, 2015. "Impactos económicos de proyectos de renovación urbana en Bogotá: un análisis a partir de los multiplicadores de la SAM 2010," Documentos de trabajo 17673, Escuela de Gobierno - Universidad de los Andes.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Sharma, Susan Sunila & Bannigidadmath, Deepa, 2013. "Does tourism predict macroeconomic performance in Pacific Island countries?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 780-786.
    2. K.Ali Akkemik & Erisa Dautaj Şenerdem, 2014. "CGE Assessment of Tourism Policies in Turkey," ERSA conference papers ersa14p891, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Muhammad Ahad, 2016. "Does Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis exist in Pakistan? A Freshlook from Combine Cointegration and Causality Approach with Structural Breaks," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 4(2), pages 94-111, February.
    4. Sofyan SYAHNUR & Klaus FROHBERG, 2008. "The Impact of Oil Price Behavior on the Poor in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province, Indonesia," EcoMod2008 23800139, EcoMod.
    5. Chen, Ming-Hsiang, 2010. "The economy, tourism growth and corporate performance in the Taiwanese hotel industry," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 665-675.
    6. Brida, Juan Gabriel & Barquet, Andrea & Risso, Wiston Adrián, 2009. "Causality between Economic Growth and Tourism Expansion: Empirical Evidence from Trentino - Alto Adige," MPRA Paper 25316, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Dec 2009.
    7. Waheed Ahmad & Tariq Majeed & Zubaria Andlib, 2020. "Tourism Led Growth Hypothesis: Empirical Evidence From Five South Asian Countries," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 9(1), pages 51-59, March.
    8. Sheilla Nyasha & Nicholas M. Odhiambo & Simplice A. Asongu, 2021. "The Impact of Tourism Development on Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 33(6), pages 1514-1535, December.
    9. Ceyhun Can OZCAN & Murat ASLAN & Saban NAZLIOGLU, 2017. "Economic freedom, economic growth and international tourism for post-communist (transition) countries: A panel causality analysis," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(2(611), S), pages 75-98, Summer.
    10. El in Aykac Alp & Elif Guneren Genc, 2015. "The Relation between Current Account Deficit and Tourism: The Case of Turkey," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 448-453.
    11. Francis Baidoo & Elikplimi Komla Agbloyor & Vera Ogeh Lassey Fiador & Nana Amaniampong Marfo, 2022. "Do countries’ geographical locations moderate the tourism-led economic growth nexus in sub-Saharan Africa?," Tourism Economics, , vol. 28(4), pages 1009-1039, June.
    12. Chang, C-L. & Khamkaew, T. & McAleer, M.J., 2009. "A Panel Threshold Model of Tourism Specialization and Economic Development," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2009-40, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    13. Santhosh Kumar P. K. & Sanjeev M. A., 2020. "Terrorism–Tourism–Economic Growth Nexus in India: An NARDL Evidence," FIIB Business Review, , vol. 9(4), pages 300-308, December.
    14. Ronald Ravinesh Kumar & Peter Josef Stauvermann & Nikeel Kumar & Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad, 2019. "Exploring the effect of ICT and tourism on economic growth: a study of Israel," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 221-254, August.
    15. Lingaraj MALLICK & Ummalla MALLESH & Jaganath BEHERA, 2016. "Does tourism affect economic growth in Indian states? Evidence from panel ARDL model," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(606), S), pages 183-194, Spring.
    16. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh & Ivanov, Stanislav & Loganathan, Nanthakumar, 2015. "Nexus between Tourism demand and output per capita with relative importance of trade and financial development: A study of Malaysia," MPRA Paper 67226, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 11 Oct 2015.
    17. Chang, Shu-Lien & Lee, Yun-Huan, 2019. "Returns spillovers between tourism ETFs," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
    18. Holzner, Mario, 2011. "Tourism and economic development: The beach disease?," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 922-933.
    19. Muhammad Tariq Majeed & Maria Mazhar, 2021. "Managing economic growth through tourism: Does volatility of tourism matter?," DECISION: Official Journal of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Springer;Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, vol. 48(1), pages 49-69, March.
    20. Bichaka Fayissa & Christian Nsiah & Badassa Tadasse, 2009. "Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries(LAC): Further Empirical Evidence," Working Papers 200902, Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Economics and Finance.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:touman:v:33:y:2012:i:4:p:790-801. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.