Universal service in telephone history : A reconstruction
The universality of telephone service is generally believed to be an achievement of regulated monopoly and rate subsidies. This paper critically examines the historical claims of what it terms the ideology of universal service. It shows that a ubiquitous telephone infrastructure developed in the USA because of competition between Bell and the independents in the period 1894-1921. Moreover, it shows that it was the refusal of Bell and the independents to interconnect with each other, a phenomenon which is generally ignored or condemned in the historical and economic literature, which propelled both systems into a race to achieve universality, leading to rapid increases in penetration and geographic scope, particularly in rural areas. The phrase universal service, which first emerged in telephone policy debates in 1907, did not mean a telephone in every home or rate subsidies, but the interconnection of the systems into a unified, non-fragmented service.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 17 (1993)
Issue (Month): 5 (July)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30471/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30471/bibliographic|
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:telpol:v:17:y:1993:i:5:p:352-369. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.