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Motivational Factors Influencing the Behaviour of J. League Spectators


  • Mahony, Daniel F.
  • Nakazawa, Makoto
  • Funk, Daniel C.
  • James, Jeffrey D.
  • Gladden, James M.


The Japanese Professional Soccer League (J. League) began in 1993 and was the first professional soccer league in Japan. After an initial period of strong interest, spectator support for the League has declined. The primary purpose of the current study was to develop a means for measuring selected motives influencing the behaviour of J. League spectators. The second purpose was to then use the measurement scale to examine the impact of these motives on spectator behaviour. Seven motives for J. League spectators were identified in the current study (drama, vicarious achievement, aesthetics, team attachment, player attachment, sport attachment, and community pride), based on prior attempts to measure the motives of sport consumers (e.g., Madrigal & Howard, 1995; Wann, 1995), and an understanding of Japanese culture and J. League spectators. Items were generated to measure each of the seven motives. Confirmatory factor analysis of the scale based on a survey of J. League attendees indicated that seven factors extracted 57% of the variance and were suitable for further analysis. Additional analysis indicated the relative importance of the motives in predicting variance in length of time as a fan and frequency of attendance. Sport attachment predicted the most variance in length of time as a fan, while team attachment was the strongest predictor of frequency of attendance. These results have implications for sport practitioners seeking to improve their marketing efforts and for sport researchers seeking to better understand the motives of sport consumers.

Suggested Citation

  • Mahony, Daniel F. & Nakazawa, Makoto & Funk, Daniel C. & James, Jeffrey D. & Gladden, James M., 2002. "Motivational Factors Influencing the Behaviour of J. League Spectators," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 1-24, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:5:y:2002:i:1:p:1-24

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    Cited by:

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    2. Matthias Peiss & Roland Kirstein, 2014. "Optimal ticket pricing in professional sports: a social identity approach," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(4), pages 2138-2150.
    3. repec:eee:joreco:v:19:y:2012:i:3:p:332-342 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Funk, Daniel C. & Ridinger, Lynn L. & Moorman, Anita M., 2003. "Understanding Consumer Support: Extending the Sport Interest Inventory (SII) to Examine Individual Differences among Women's Professional Sport Consumers," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 1-31, May.
    5. Hojat Vahdati, 2015. "Brand Identification Model of Sport Industry (Case Study: Iranian Soccer Pro League)," Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(8), pages 394-405, August.
    6. Wang, Ryan T. & Zhang, James J. & Tsuji, Yosuke, 2011. "Examining fan motives and loyalty for the Chinese Professional Baseball League of Taiwan," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 347-360.
    7. Drayer, Joris & Shapiro, Stephen L. & Dwyer, Brendan & Morse, Alan L. & White, Joel, 2010. "The effects of fantasy football participation on NFL consumption: A qualitative analysis," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 129-141, May.
    8. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-14-00811 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-14-00787 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Doyle, Jason P. & Lock, Daniel & Funk, Daniel C. & Filo, Kevin & McDonald, Heath, 2017. "‘I was there from the start’: The identity-maintenance strategies used by fans to combat the threat of losing," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 184-197.
    11. Stavros, Constantino & Meng, Matthew D. & Westberg, Kate & Farrelly, Francis, 2014. "Understanding fan motivation for interacting on social media," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 455-469.
    12. Baucus, Melissa & Norton Jr., William I. & Davis-Sramek, Beth & Meek, William, 2008. "Cheating and NASCAR: Who's at the wheel?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 379-389.

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