IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Confounding of occupation and smoking: Its magnitude and consequences


  • Smith, George Davey
  • Shipley, Martin J.


In a recent contribution to this journal, Sterling and Weinkam discuss the importance of the confounding of occupation and smoking when considering the contribution of smoking to mortality risk. In this report we provide estimates of the potential magnitude of this effect using data from a cohort study. It is shown that failing to consider possible confounding by socio-economic factors can lead to over-estimating of the strength of the relationship between smoking and mortality. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of results derived from observational studies are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Smith, George Davey & Shipley, Martin J., 1991. "Confounding of occupation and smoking: Its magnitude and consequences," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1297-1300, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:32:y:1991:i:11:p:1297-1300

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Temin, Peter, 1983. "Costs and benefits in switching drugs from Rx to OTC," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 187-205, December.
    2. Foster, S. D., 1990. "Improving the supply and use of essential drugs in sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 456, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Jerome Adda & Valérie Lechene, 2004. "On the identification of the effect of smoking on mortality," CeMMAP working papers CWP13/04, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    2. Kinge, Jonas Minet & Morris, Stephen, 2014. "Variation in the relationship between BMI and survival by socioeconomic status in Great Britain," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 12(C), pages 67-82.
    3. Carbone, Jared C. & Kverndokk, Snorre & Rogeberg, Ole Jorgen, 2005. "Smoking, health, risk, and perception," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 631-653, July.
    4. Carbone, Jared & Kverndokk, Snorre & Røgeberg, Ole-Jørgen, 2009. "Smoking and Health Investments: Impacts of Health Adaptation and Damage Reversibility," HERO On line Working Paper Series 2003:12, Oslo University, Health Economics Research Programme.
    5. Charafeddine, Rana & Van Oyen, Herman & Demarest, Stefaan, 2012. "Does the association between smoking and mortality differ by educational level?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(9), pages 1402-1406.
    6. Birch, Stephen & Jerrett, Michael & Wilson, Kathi & Law, Michael & Elliott, Susan & Eyles, John, 2005. "Heterogeneities in the production of health: smoking, health status and place," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 301-310, June.
    7. Minet Kinge, Jonas & Morris, Stephen, 2010. "Socioeconomic variation in the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(10), pages 1864-1871, November.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:32:y:1991:i:11:p:1297-1300. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.