IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/retrec/v39y2013i1p215-225.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Ten years after bus deregulation in Japan: An analysis of institutional changes and cost efficiency

Author

Listed:
  • Sakai, Hiroki
  • Takahashi, Yoshinori

Abstract

The local bus market in Japan was deregulated in 2002. This study examines the impact of this deregulation on the market structure and the operators' cost efficiency over the last ten years. First, we perform a qualitative before-and-after-deregulation analysis of Japan's bus market, finding that there has been little change in the structure of the Japanese bus market so far. Second, we investigate the effectiveness of the deregulation and internal organisational factors by using a dataset of publicly owned (municipal) bus companies. We estimate the total cost frontier functions in order to examine their effects, showing that it is the internal organisational factors (i.e. governance structure) that affect the operator's efficiency, not deregulation. In fact, the coefficient of subsidies to companies is positive, with statistical significance, thereby suggesting that cost efficiency decreases as the subsidy ratio increases. The coefficient of the contracting-out (MCGL) dummy also obtains statistically significant results; thus, we provide an account of how contracting out clearly improves operators' cost efficiency. The deregulation variable did not show significant results.

Suggested Citation

  • Sakai, Hiroki & Takahashi, Yoshinori, 2013. "Ten years after bus deregulation in Japan: An analysis of institutional changes and cost efficiency," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 215-225.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:retrec:v:39:y:2013:i:1:p:215-225
    DOI: 10.1016/j.retrec.2012.06.016
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0739885912000881
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dag Dalen & Andres Gómez-Lobo, 2003. "Yardsticks on the road: Regulatory contracts and cost efficiency in the Norwegian bus industry," Transportation, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 371-386, November.
    2. William Roy & Anne Yvrande-Billon, 2007. "Ownership, Contractual Practices and Technical Efficiency: The Case of Urban Public Transport in France," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 41(2), pages 257-282, May.
    3. Bruno De Borger & Kristiaan Kerstens & Álvaro Costa, 2002. "Public transit performance: What does one learn from frontier studies?," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(1), pages 1-38, January.
    4. B. de Borger & K. Kerstens, 2006. "The performance of bus-transit operators," Post-Print hal-00185456, HAL.
    5. Mizutani, Fumitoshi & Urakami, Takuya, 2002. "A private-public comparison of bus service operators," ERSA conference papers ersa02p146, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Karlaftis, Matt G. & McCarthy, Patrick, 1998. "Operating subsidies and performance in public transit: an empirical study," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 359-375, September.
    7. Fumitoshi Mizutani & Hideo Kozumi & Noriaki Matsushima, 2009. "Does yardstick regulation really work? Empirical evidence from Japan’s rail industry," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 308-323, December.
    8. Massimiliano Piacenza, 2006. "Regulatory Contracts and Cost Efficiency: Stochastic Frontier Evidence from the Italian Local Public Transport," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 257-277, June.
    9. Sakai, Hiroki & Shoji, Kenichi, 2010. "The effect of governmental subsidies and the contractual model on the publicly-owned bus sector in Japan," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 60-71.
    10. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-332.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ida, Yoram & Talit, Gal, 2015. "Regulation of public bus services: The Israeli experience," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 156-165.
    2. Bajada, Thérèse & Titheridge, Helena, 2016. "To contract or to operate publicly? Observations from the bus service reform transition process in Malta," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 281-291.
    3. Bouf, Dominique & Faivre d’Arcier, Bruno, 2015. "The looming crisis in French public transit," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 34-41.
    4. Cinzia Daraio & Marco Diana & Flavia Di Costa & Claudio Leporelli & Giorgio Matteucci & Alberto Nastasi, 2014. "Efficiency and effectiveness in the urban public transport sector: a critical review with directions for future research," DIAG Technical Reports 2014-14, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    5. Wegelin, Philipp, 2018. "Is the mere threat enough? An empirical analysis about competitive tendering as a threat and cost efficiency in public bus transportation," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 245-253.
    6. Mouwen, Arnoud & van Ommeren, Jos, 2016. "The effect of contract renewal and competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies and ridership," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 78-89.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:retrec:v:39:y:2013:i:1:p:215-225. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/620614/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.