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The effect of diffuser configuration on thermal stratification in a rectangular storage tank


  • Chung, Jae Dong
  • Cho, Sung Hwan
  • Tae, Choon Seob
  • Yoo, Hoseon


This study is to systematically analyze the effect of various kinds of design factors on the stratification performance of a rectangular storage tank. Special interest is focused on the diffuser configuration, which crucially impacts the performance of a storage tank. Herein, a new diffuser shape is proposed, which exemplifies improved performance. Three-dimensional unsteady numerical experiments are conducted for four design parameters of a stratified thermal storage tank: Three design parameters with three levels (i.e., the Reynolds number=400, 800, and 1200; the Froude number=0.5, 1.0, and 2.0; and the area ratio of the diffuser to tank cross-section=0.0327, 0.0582, and 0.131) and one design parameter having two levels (i.e., diffuser type=radial plate type and radial adjusted plate type). Orthogonal array L18(2×37) is adopted for the analysis of variance. The result gives quantitative estimation of the various design parameters affecting the performance and helps to determine the main factors for the optimum design of a stratified thermal storage tank. In the range of parameters considered, the Reynolds number is found to be the most dominant parameter. Moreover, the diffuser shape plays a significant role on the performance of a stratified thermal storage tank.

Suggested Citation

  • Chung, Jae Dong & Cho, Sung Hwan & Tae, Choon Seob & Yoo, Hoseon, 2008. "The effect of diffuser configuration on thermal stratification in a rectangular storage tank," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 2236-2245.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:33:y:2008:i:10:p:2236-2245
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2007.12.013

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    Cited by:

    1. Ying Li & Fengzhong Sun & Qiannan Zhang & Xuehong Chen & Wei Yuan, 2020. "Numerical Simulation Study on Structure Optimization and Performance Improvement of Hot Water Storage Tank in CHP System," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(18), pages 1-14, September.
    2. María Gasque & Federico Ibáñez & Pablo González-Altozano, 2021. "Minimum Number of Experimental Data for the Thermal Characterization of a Hot Water Storage Tank," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(16), pages 1-16, August.
    3. Ruth M. Saint & Céline Garnier & Francesco Pomponi & John Currie, 2018. "Thermal Performance through Heat Retention in Integrated Collector-Storage Solar Water Heaters: A Review," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(6), pages 1-26, June.
    4. Streckiene, Giedre & Martinaitis, Vytautas & Andersen, Anders N. & Katz, Jonas, 2009. "Feasibility of CHP-plants with thermal stores in the German spot market," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(11), pages 2308-2316, November.
    5. Pinel, Patrice & Cruickshank, Cynthia A. & Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian & Wills, Adam, 2011. "A review of available methods for seasonal storage of solar thermal energy in residential applications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(7), pages 3341-3359, September.
    6. Garnier, Celine & Muneer, Tariq & Currie, John, 2018. "Numerical and empirical evaluation of a novel building integrated collector storage solar water heater," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 281-295.
    7. Li, Qiong & Huang, Xiaoqiao & Tai, Yonghang & Gao, Wenfeng & Wenxian, L. & Liu, Wuming, 2021. "Thermal stratification in a solar hot water storage tank with mantle heat exchanger," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 1-11.
    8. Hafez, A.M. & Kassem, M.A. & Huzayyin, O.A., 2018. "Smart adaptive model for dynamic simulation of horizontal thermally stratified storage tanks," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 782-792.
    9. Kumar, G. Senthil & Nagarajan, D. & Chidambaram, L.A. & Kumaresan, V. & Ding, Y. & Velraj, R., 2016. "Role of PCM addition on stratification behaviour in a thermal storage tank – An experimental study," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 115(P1), pages 1168-1178.
    10. Wanruo Lou & Lingai Luo & Yuchao Hua & Yilin Fan & Zhenyu Du, 2021. "A Review on the Performance Indicators and Influencing Factors for the Thermocline Thermal Energy Storage Systems," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(24), pages 1-19, December.
    11. Baeten, Brecht & Confrey, Thomas & Pecceu, Sébastien & Rogiers, Frederik & Helsen, Lieve, 2016. "A validated model for mixing and buoyancy in stratified hot water storage tanks for use in building energy simulations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 217-229.
    12. Dahash, Abdulrahman & Ochs, Fabian & Janetti, Michele Bianchi & Streicher, Wolfgang, 2019. "Advances in seasonal thermal energy storage for solar district heating applications: A critical review on large-scale hot-water tank and pit thermal energy storage systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 239(C), pages 296-315.
    13. Abdelsalam, M.Y. & Teamah, H.M. & Lightstone, M.F. & Cotton, J.S., 2020. "Hybrid thermal energy storage with phase change materials for solar domestic hot water applications: Direct versus indirect heat exchange systems," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(P1), pages 77-88.
    14. Kurşun, Burak & Ökten, Korhan, 2018. "Effect of rectangular hot water tank position and aspect ratio on thermal stratification enhancement," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 116(PA), pages 639-646.


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