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Aquifer thermal storage (ATES) for air-conditioning of a supermarket in Turkey


  • Paksoy, H.O.
  • Gürbüz, Z.
  • Turgut, B.
  • Dikici, D.
  • Evliya, H.


A heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system with integrated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) was designed for a supermarket building in Mersin, a city near the Mediterranean coast in Turkey (36° 49′ N and 34° 36′ E). This is the first ATES application carried out in Turkey. The peak cooling and heating loads of the building are 195 and 74 kW, respectively. The general objective of the system is to use the groundwater from the aquifer to cool down the condenser of the HVAC system and at the same time storing this waste heat in the aquifer. Cooling with groundwater at around 18 °C instead of utilizing outside summer air at 30–35 °C decreases consumption of electrical energy significantly. In addition, stored heat can be recovered when it is needed in winter. The HVAC system with ATES started operation in August 2001 in cooling mode with an average coefficient of performance (COP) of 4.18, which is almost 60% higher than a conventional system.

Suggested Citation

  • Paksoy, H.O. & Gürbüz, Z. & Turgut, B. & Dikici, D. & Evliya, H., 2004. "Aquifer thermal storage (ATES) for air-conditioning of a supermarket in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 29(12), pages 1991-1996.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:29:y:2004:i:12:p:1991-1996
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2004.03.007

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    Cited by:

    1. Xiao, Xiao & Jiang, Zhenjiao & Owen, Daniel & Schrank, Christoph, 2016. "Numerical simulation of a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system coupled with heating and cooling of a thermal plant in a cold region, China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 443-456.
    2. Novo, Amaya V. & Bayon, Joseba R. & Castro-Fresno, Daniel & Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge, 2010. "Review of seasonal heat storage in large basins: Water tanks and gravel-water pits," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 390-397, February.
    3. Kun Sang Lee, 2010. "A Review on Concepts, Applications, and Models of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(6), pages 1-15, June.
    4. Kranz, Stefan & Frick, Stephanie, 2013. "Efficient cooling energy supply with aquifer thermal energy storages," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 321-327.
    5. Zhang, Ziyu & Ding, Tao & Zhou, Quan & Sun, Yuge & Qu, Ming & Zeng, Ziyu & Ju, Yuntao & Li, Li & Wang, Kang & Chi, Fangde, 2021. "A review of technologies and applications on versatile energy storage systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 148(C).
    6. Lu, Hongwei & Tian, Peipei & Guan, Yanlong & Yu, Sen, 2019. "Integrated suitability, vulnerability and sustainability indicators for assessing the global potential of aquifer thermal energy storage," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 239(C), pages 747-756.
    7. Guelpa, Elisa & Verda, Vittorio, 2019. "Thermal energy storage in district heating and cooling systems: A review," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 252(C), pages 1-1.
    8. Rosiek, Sabina & Batlles, Francisco Javier, 2013. "Renewable energy solutions for building cooling, heating and power system installed in an institutional building: Case study in southern Spain," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 147-168.
    9. Shah, Sheikh Khaleduzzaman & Aye, Lu & Rismanchi, Behzad, 2018. "Seasonal thermal energy storage system for cold climate zones: A review of recent developments," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 38-49.
    10. Rosiek, S. & Batlles, F.J., 2012. "Shallow geothermal energy applied to a solar-assisted air-conditioning system in southern Spain: Two-year experience," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 267-276.
    11. Hesaraki, Arefeh & Holmberg, Sture & Haghighat, Fariborz, 2015. "Seasonal thermal energy storage with heat pumps and low temperatures in building projects—A comparative review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1199-1213.
    12. Fleuchaus, Paul & Godschalk, Bas & Stober, Ingrid & Blum, Philipp, 2018. "Worldwide application of aquifer thermal energy storage – A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 861-876.
    13. Moon, Chung-Eun & Choi, Jong Min, 2015. "Heating performance characteristics of the ground source heat pump system with energy-piles and energy-slabs," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 27-32.


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