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The X-efficiency of commercial banks in Hong Kong

  • Kwan, Simon H.

This paper uses the stochastic econometric cost frontier approach to investigate the cost efficiency of commercial banks in Hong Kong. On average, the X-efficiency of Hong Kong banks is found to be about 16 to 30 percent of observed total costs, which is comparable to the findings in the U.S. banking industry. X-efficiency is found to decline over time, indicating that banks in Hong Kong are now operating closer to the cost frontier than before. This is consistent with technological innovation that might have occurred in the Hong Kong banking industry. Furthermore, the average large bank in Hong Kong is found to be less efficient than the average small bank, particularly during the earlier time periods. Finally, X-efficiency is found to be related to certain bank characteristics. Specifically, X-efficiency is found to decline with bank size, deposit-to-asset ratio, loan-to-asset ratios, provision for loan loss, and loan growth, and to increase with off-balance sheet activities.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

Volume (Year): 30 (2006)
Issue (Month): 4 (April)
Pages: 1127-1147

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:30:y:2006:i:4:p:1127-1147
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

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  1. Peristiani, Stavros, 1997. "Do Mergers Improve the X-Efficiency and Scale Efficiency of U.S. Banks? Evidence from the 1980s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 326-37, August.
  2. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: international survey and directions for future research," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-11, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Simon H. Kwan & Robert A. Eisenbeis, 1995. "An analysis of inefficiencies in banking: a stochastic cost frontier approach," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 95-12, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  4. Berger, Allen N. & Hunter, William C. & Timme, Stephen G., 1993. "The efficiency of financial institutions: A review and preview of research past, present and future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 221-249, April.
  5. Simon H. Kwan, 2002. "Operating performance of banks among Asian economies: an international and time series comparison," Working Paper Series 2002-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  6. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung, 1995. "Problem Loans and Cost Efficiency in Commercial Banks," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-01, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
  8. Paul W. Bauer & Allen N. Berger & Gary D. Ferrier & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "Consistency conditions for regulatory analysis of financial institutions: a comparison of frontier efficiency methods," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-50, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Loretta J. Mester, 1992. "Efficiency in the savings and loan industry," Working Papers 92-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  10. Simon H. Kwan, 2001. "Impact of deposit rate deregulation in Hong Kong on the market value of commercial banks," Working Paper Series 2001-11, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  11. Pi, Lynn & Timme, Stephen G., 1993. "Corporate control and bank efficiency," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 515-530, April.
  12. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
  13. Allen Berger & Timothy Hannan, 1994. "The Efficiency Cost of Market Power in the Banking Industry: A Test of the 'Quiet Life' and Related Hypotheses," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 94-29, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  14. Robert A. Eisenbeis & Gary D. Ferrier & Simon H. Kwan, 1999. "The informativeness of stochastic frontier and programming frontier efficiency scores: Cost efficiency and other measures of bank holding company performance," Working Paper 99-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  15. Sealey, Calvin W, Jr & Lindley, James T, 1977. "Inputs, Outputs, and a Theory of Production and Cost at Depository Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1251-66, September.
  16. Allen, Linda & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "Operational efficiency in banking: An international comparison," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 655-672, May.
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