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The X-efficiency of commercial banks in Hong Kong

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  • Kwan, Simon H.

Abstract

This paper uses the stochastic econometric cost frontier approach to investigate the cost efficiency of commercial banks in Hong Kong. On average, the X-efficiency of Hong Kong banks is found to be about 16 to 30 percent of observed total costs, which is comparable to the findings in the U.S. banking industry. X-efficiency is found to decline over time, indicating that banks in Hong Kong are now operating closer to the cost frontier than before. This is consistent with technological innovation that might have occurred in the Hong Kong banking industry. Furthermore, the average large bank in Hong Kong is found to be less efficient than the average small bank, particularly during the earlier time periods. Finally, X-efficiency is found to be related to certain bank characteristics. Specifically, X-efficiency is found to decline with bank size, deposit-to-asset ratio, loan-to-asset ratios, provision for loan loss, and loan growth, and to increase with off-balance sheet activities.
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  • Kwan, Simon H., 2006. "The X-efficiency of commercial banks in Hong Kong," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1127-1147, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:30:y:2006:i:4:p:1127-1147
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    Cited by:

    1. Bader, Mohammed Khaled I. & Mohamad, Shamsher & Ariff, Mohamed & Hassan, Taufiq, 2008. "Cost, Revenue, And Profit Efficiency Of Islamic Versus Conventional Banks: International Evidence Using Data Envelopment Analysis," Islamic Economic Studies, The Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI), vol. 15, pages 24-76.
    2. Muliaman Hadad & Maximilian Hall & Karligash Kenjegalieva & Wimboh Santoso & Richard Simper, 2011. "Banking efficiency and stock market performance: an analysis of listed Indonesian banks," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 1-20, July.
    3. Kauko, Karlo, 2009. "Managers and efficiency in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 546-556, March.
    4. Ines Ayadi, 2013. "Determinants of Tunisian Bank Efficiency: A DEA Analysis," International Journal of Financial Research, International Journal of Financial Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 4(4), pages 128-139, October.
    5. Aiello, Francesco & Bonanno, Graziella, 2014. "On the Sources of Heterogeneity in Banking Efficiency Literature," MPRA Paper 58591, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Curi, Claudia & Lozano-Vivas, Ana & Zelenyuk, Valentin, 2015. "Foreign bank diversification and efficiency prior to and during the financial crisis: Does one business model fit all?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(S1), pages 22-35.
    7. Francesco Aiello & Graziella Bonanno, 2016. "Efficiency in banking: a meta-regression analysis," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 112-149, January.
    8. Abid A. Burki & G.S.K. Niazi, 2006. "Impact of Financial Reforms on Efficiency of State-owned, Private and Foreign Banks in Pakistan," Finance Working Papers 22248, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    9. repec:beh:jbepv1:v:1:y:2017:i:2:p:25-30 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Abid A. Burki & Shabbir Ahmad, 2007. "Corporate Governance Changes in Pakistan’s Banking Sector : Is There a Performance Effect?," Governance Working Papers 22251, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    11. Staub, Roberta B. & da Silva e Souza, Geraldo & Tabak, Benjamin M., 2010. "Evolution of bank efficiency in Brazil: A DEA approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 202(1), pages 204-213, April.
    12. Thierno Amadou Barry & Santos José O. Dacanay & Laetitia Lepetit & Amine Tarazi, 2008. "Ownership Structure and Bank Efficiency in the asia pacific region," Working Papers hal-00915134, HAL.
    13. Claudia Curi & Ana Lozano-Vivas, 2015. "Financial center productivity and innovation prior to and during the financial crisis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 351-365, June.
    14. Hall, Maximilian J.B. & Kenjegalieva, Karligash A. & Simper, Richard, 2012. "Environmental factors affecting Hong Kong banking: A post-Asian financial crisis efficiency analysis," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 184-201.
    15. repec:elg:eechap:15532_15 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Claudia Curi & Paolo Guarda & Ana Lozano-Vivas & Valentin Zelenyuk, 2013. "Is foreign-bank efficiency in financial centers driven by home or host country characteristics?," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 367-385, December.
    17. Thoraneenitiyan, Nakhun & Avkiran, Necmi K., 2009. "Measuring the impact of restructuring and country-specific factors on the efficiency of post-crisis East Asian banking systems: Integrating DEA with SFA," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 240-252, December.
    18. Valentin Zelenyuk & Claudia Curi & Paolo Guarda & Ana Lozano-Vivas, 2011. "Is foreign-bank efficiency in financial centers driven by home-country characteristics?," CEPA Working Papers Series WP022011, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    19. Chun-Yu Ho, 2010. "Deregulation, competition and consumer welfare in a banking market: evidence from Hong Kong," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 70-97, February.
    20. Mohamed Ariff & Mohammad K. Badar & Shamsher Mohammad & Taufiq Hassan, 2011. "Performance of Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks," Chapters,in: The Foundations of Islamic Banking, chapter 8 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    21. Yong Li & Mancang Wang, 2012. "Capital regulation, monetary policy and asymmetric effects of commercial banks' efficiency," China Finance Review International, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(1), pages 5-26, January.
    22. Ihsen Abid & Mohamed Goaied, 2017. "Benchmarking Banking Efficiency Using a Meta-Profit Function," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 15(1), pages 45-74, March.
    23. Manlagñit, Maria Chelo V., 2011. "Cost efficiency, determinants, and risk preferences in banking: A case of stochastic frontier analysis in the Philippines," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 23-35, February.
    24. Tabak, Benjamin M. & Langsch Tecles, Patricia, 2010. "Estimating a Bayesian stochastic frontier for the Indian banking system," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1), pages 96-110, May.
    25. Chuling Chen, 2009. "Bank Efficiency in Sub-Saharan African Middle Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 09/14, International Monetary Fund.

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