IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Optimized phasing of the development of a regional energy system


  • Haikarainen, Carl
  • Pettersson, Frank
  • Saxén, Henrik


With the increase in intermittent renewable energy sources and integration of different energy sectors, energy systems are expected to become more distributed and complex. There are many optimization models for analyzing how the structure and operational conditions such distributed energy systems affect the economic, environmental, and societal frameworks they belong to. These models often give optimal solutions without regard to how the solutions could be reached taking into account a realistic time perspective. This paper describes a mixed-integer linear programming modelling approach that optimizes investments and operation over longer time horizons, evaluating cumulated costs and emissions. As examples, two regional energy systems in different climates are optimized, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach. The model can act as a planning tool or for assessment of different future scenarios where fossil sources or energy are gradually replaced by renewable ones.

Suggested Citation

  • Haikarainen, Carl & Pettersson, Frank & Saxén, Henrik, 2020. "Optimized phasing of the development of a regional energy system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 206(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:206:y:2020:i:c:s0360544220312366
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Limpens, Gauthier & Jeanmart, Hervé, 2018. "Electricity storage needs for the energy transition: An EROI based analysis illustrated by the case of Belgium," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 960-973.
    2. Salehi, Mohammad & Khajehpour, Hossein & Saboohi, Yadollah, 2020. "Extended Energy Return on Investment of multiproduct energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 192(C).
    3. Flores, Julio R. & Montagna, Jorge M. & Vecchietti, Aldo, 2014. "An optimization approach for long term investments planning in energy," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 162-178.
    4. Henrik Lund & Finn Arler & Poul Alberg Østergaard & Frede Hvelplund & David Connolly & Brian Vad Mathiesen & Peter Karnøe, 2017. "Simulation versus Optimisation: Theoretical Positions in Energy System Modelling," Energies, MDPI, vol. 10(7), pages 1-17, June.
    5. Liu, Yikui & Wu, Lei & Li, Jie, 2019. "Towards accurate modeling of dynamic startup/shutdown and ramping processes of thermal units in unit commitment problems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 187(C).
    6. Trainer, Ted, 2018. "Estimating the EROI of whole systems for 100% renewable electricity supply capable of dealing with intermittency," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 648-653.
    7. Simoes, Sofia & Nijs, Wouter & Ruiz, Pablo & Sgobbi, Alessandra & Thiel, Christian, 2017. "Comparing policy routes for low-carbon power technology deployment in EU – an energy system analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 353-365.
    8. Ioan Sarbu & Calin Sebarchievici, 2018. "A Comprehensive Review of Thermal Energy Storage," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(1), pages 1-32, January.
    9. Han, Seulki & Kim, Jiyong, 2019. "A multi-period MILP model for the investment and design planning of a national-level complex renewable energy supply system," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 736-750.
    10. Lund, Henrik & Østergaard, Poul Alberg & Connolly, David & Mathiesen, Brian Vad, 2017. "Smart energy and smart energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 556-565.
    11. Howells, Mark & Rogner, Holger & Strachan, Neil & Heaps, Charles & Huntington, Hillard & Kypreos, Socrates & Hughes, Alison & Silveira, Semida & DeCarolis, Joe & Bazillian, Morgan & Roehrl, Alexander, 2011. "OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System: An introduction to its ethos, structure and development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 5850-5870, October.
    12. Hansen, Kenneth & Breyer, Christian & Lund, Henrik, 2019. "Status and perspectives on 100% renewable energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 471-480.
    13. Midttun, Atle & Baumgartner, Thomas, 1986. "Negotiating energy futures The politics of energy forecasting," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 219-241, June.
    14. Moretti, L. & Polimeni, S. & Meraldi, L. & Raboni, P. & Leva, S. & Manzolini, G., 2019. "Assessing the impact of a two-layer predictive dispatch algorithm on design and operation of off-grid hybrid microgrids," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 143(C), pages 1439-1453.
    15. Kraan, Oscar & Chappin, Emile & Kramer, Gert Jan & Nikolic, Igor, 2019. "The influence of the energy transition on the significance of key energy metrics," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 215-223.
    16. Prina, Matteo Giacomo & Lionetti, Matteo & Manzolini, Giampaolo & Sparber, Wolfram & Moser, David, 2019. "Transition pathways optimization methodology through EnergyPLAN software for long-term energy planning," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 235(C), pages 356-368.
    17. Poncelet, Kris & Delarue, Erik & Six, Daan & Duerinck, Jan & D’haeseleer, William, 2016. "Impact of the level of temporal and operational detail in energy-system planning models," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 631-643.
    18. Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd & van den Broek, Machteld & Seebregts, Ad & Faaij, André, 2015. "Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 107-128.
    19. Luo, Xing & Wang, Jihong & Dooner, Mark & Clarke, Jonathan, 2015. "Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 511-536.
    20. Child, Michael & Koskinen, Otto & Linnanen, Lassi & Breyer, Christian, 2018. "Sustainability guardrails for energy scenarios of the global energy transition," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 321-334.
    21. Brown, T. & Schlachtberger, D. & Kies, A. & Schramm, S. & Greiner, M., 2018. "Synergies of sector coupling and transmission reinforcement in a cost-optimised, highly renewable European energy system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 720-739.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Waldemar Kuczynski & Kazimierz Kaminski & Pawel Znaczko & Norbert Chamier-Gliszczynski & Piotr Piatkowski, 2021. "On the Correlation between the Geometrical Features and Thermal Efficiency of Flat-Plate Solar Collectors," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(2), pages 1-15, January.
    2. Østergaard, P.A. & Lund, H. & Thellufsen, J.Z. & Sorknæs, P. & Mathiesen, B.V., 2022. "Review and validation of EnergyPLAN," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    3. Halilovic, Smajil & Odersky, Leonhard & Hamacher, Thomas, 2022. "Integration of groundwater heat pumps into energy system optimization models," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 238(PA).
    4. Herc, Luka & Pfeifer, Antun & Duić, Neven & Wang, Fei, 2022. "Economic viability of flexibility options for smart energy systems with high penetration of renewable energy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 252(C).
    5. Iosifov Valeriy Victorovich & Evgenii Yu. Khrustalev & Sergey N. Larin & Oleg E. Khrustalev, 2021. "The Linear Programming Problem of Regional Energy System Optimization," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(5), pages 281-288.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Østergaard, P.A. & Lund, H. & Thellufsen, J.Z. & Sorknæs, P. & Mathiesen, B.V., 2022. "Review and validation of EnergyPLAN," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    2. Chang, Miguel & Thellufsen, Jakob Zink & Zakeri, Behnam & Pickering, Bryn & Pfenninger, Stefan & Lund, Henrik & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2021. "Trends in tools and approaches for modelling the energy transition," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 290(C).
    3. Chang, Miguel & Lund, Henrik & Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2023. "Perspectives on purpose-driven coupling of energy system models," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 265(C).
    4. Prina, Matteo Giacomo & Manzolini, Giampaolo & Moser, David & Nastasi, Benedetto & Sparber, Wolfram, 2020. "Classification and challenges of bottom-up energy system models - A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    5. Fridgen, Gilbert & Keller, Robert & Körner, Marc-Fabian & Schöpf, Michael, 2020. "A holistic view on sector coupling," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    6. Lopez, Gabriel & Aghahosseini, Arman & Child, Michael & Khalili, Siavash & Fasihi, Mahdi & Bogdanov, Dmitrii & Breyer, Christian, 2022. "Impacts of model structure, framework, and flexibility on perspectives of 100% renewable energy transition decision-making," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 164(C).
    7. Hansen, Kenneth & Breyer, Christian & Lund, Henrik, 2019. "Status and perspectives on 100% renewable energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 471-480.
    8. Viesi, Diego & Crema, Luigi & Mahbub, Md Shahriar & Verones, Sara & Brunelli, Roberto & Baggio, Paolo & Fauri, Maurizio & Prada, Alessandro & Bello, Andrea & Nodari, Benedetta & Silvestri, Silvia & To, 2020. "Integrated and dynamic energy modelling of a regional system: A cost-optimized approach in the deep decarbonisation of the Province of Trento (Italy)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 209(C).
    9. Fattahi, A. & Sijm, J. & Faaij, A., 2020. "A systemic approach to analyze integrated energy system modeling tools: A review of national models," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    10. Borasio, M. & Moret, S., 2022. "Deep decarbonisation of regional energy systems: A novel modelling approach and its application to the Italian energy transition," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 153(C).
    11. Vaccaro, Roberto & Rocco, Matteo V., 2021. "Quantifying the impact of low carbon transition scenarios at regional level through soft-linked energy and economy models: The case of South-Tyrol Province in Italy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 220(C).
    12. Lund, Henrik & Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck & Sorknæs, Peter & Mathiesen, Brian Vad & Chang, Miguel & Madsen, Poul Thøis & Kany, Mikkel Strunge & Skov, Iva Ridjan, 2022. "Smart energy Denmark. A consistent and detailed strategy for a fully decarbonized society," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    13. Guelpa, Elisa & Bischi, Aldo & Verda, Vittorio & Chertkov, Michael & Lund, Henrik, 2019. "Towards future infrastructures for sustainable multi-energy systems: A review," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 2-21.
    14. Yue, Xiufeng & Patankar, Neha & Decarolis, Joseph & Chiodi, Alessandro & Rogan, Fionn & Deane, J.P. & O’Gallachoir, Brian, 2020. "Least cost energy system pathways towards 100% renewable energy in Ireland by 2050," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 207(C).
    15. Papadis, Elisa & Tsatsaronis, George, 2020. "Challenges in the decarbonization of the energy sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 205(C).
    16. Aghahosseini, Arman & Bogdanov, Dmitrii & Barbosa, Larissa S.N.S. & Breyer, Christian, 2019. "Analysing the feasibility of powering the Americas with renewable energy and inter-regional grid interconnections by 2030," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 187-205.
    17. Bogdanov, Dmitrii & Ram, Manish & Aghahosseini, Arman & Gulagi, Ashish & Oyewo, Ayobami Solomon & Child, Michael & Caldera, Upeksha & Sadovskaia, Kristina & Farfan, Javier & De Souza Noel Simas Barbos, 2021. "Low-cost renewable electricity as the key driver of the global energy transition towards sustainability," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 227(C).
    18. Thure Traber & Franziska Simone Hegner & Hans-Josef Fell, 2021. "An Economically Viable 100% Renewable Energy System for All Energy Sectors of Germany in 2030," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(17), pages 1-17, August.
    19. Xavier Rixhon & Gauthier Limpens & Diederik Coppitters & Hervé Jeanmart & Francesco Contino, 2021. "The Role of Electrofuels under Uncertainties for the Belgian Energy Transition," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(13), pages 1-23, July.
    20. Osorio-Aravena, Juan Carlos & Aghahosseini, Arman & Bogdanov, Dmitrii & Caldera, Upeksha & Ghorbani, Narges & Mensah, Theophilus Nii Odai & Haas, Jannik & Muñoz-Cerón, Emilio & Breyer, Christian, 2023. "Synergies of electrical and sectoral integration: Analysing geographical multi-node scenarios with sector coupling variations for a transition towards a fully renewables-based energy system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 279(C).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:206:y:2020:i:c:s0360544220312366. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.