Height, wealth, and health: An overview with new data from three longitudinal studies
This overview, based on a literature review and new data from the three cohorts (Whitehall Studies I and II, and the Vietnam Experience Study), has four objectives: (a) to outline the major determinants of height, so providing an indication as to what exposures this characteristic may capture; (b) to summarise, by reviewing reports from large scale studies, the relation between adult height and a range of disease outcomes - both somatic and psychiatric - with particular emphasis on coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke; (c) to discuss why these relationships may exist, in particular, the role, if any, of socioeconomic position in explaining the apparent associations; and, finally (d) to outline future research directions in this field. The large majority of evidence for predictors of height, and its health consequences, comes from observational studies. While genetic predisposition is a major determinant of height, secular rises in childhood and adult stature across successive birth cohorts suggest that early life environment also has an important impact. Plausible non-genetic determinants of height include nutrition, illness, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial stress. Evidence for an association between height and a series of health endpoints is accumulating. Thus, shorter people appear to experience increased risk of CHD, and these associations appear to be independent of socioeconomic position and other potentially confounding variables. For stroke, and its sub-types, findings are less clear. In contrast to CHD, some cancers, such as carcinoma of the colorectum, prostate, breast (in women), central nervous system, skin, endometrium, thyroid and blood (haematopoietic) are more common in taller people. While height may be negatively related to the risk of completed suicide, conclusions about the links between stature and other health endpoints is problematic given the paucity of evidence, which should be addressed. Ultimately, for want of better data, investigators in this area have used height as a proxy for a range of pre-adult exposures. In future, research should aim to explore the predictive capacity of direct measures of diet, psychosocial stress, childhood chronic illness and so on, rather than focus on height or its components. The problem is that extended follow-up of child cohorts with such data are required, and studies which hold these data are not currently available, although several are either maturing to the point where they offer sufficient clinical outcomes to facilitate analyses or are in the advanced planning stage.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John Komlos, 2007. "Anthropometric evidence on economic growth, biological well-being and regional convergence in the Habsburg Monarchy, c. 1850–1910," Cliometrica, Journal of Historical Economics and Econometric History, Association Française de Cliométrie (AFC), vol. 1(3), pages 211-237, October.
- repec:aph:ajpbhl:10.2105/2004.046219_7 is not listed on IDEAS
- Komlos, John, 1998.
"Shrinking in a Growing Economy? The Mystery of Physical Stature during the Industrial Revolution,"
The Journal of Economic History,
Cambridge University Press, vol. 58(03), pages 779-802, September.
- John Komlos, "undated". "Shrinking in a Growing Economy? The Mystery of Physical Stature during the Industrial Revolution," Articles by John Komlos 7, Department of Economics, University of Munich.
- Peck, Maria Nyström & Lundberg, Olle, 1995. "Short stature as an effect of economic and social conditions in childhood," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 733-738, September.
- Meisel, Adolfo & Vega, Margarita, 2007. "The biological standard of living (and its convergence) in Colombia, 1870-2003: A tropical success story," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 100-122, March.
- Richard H. Steckel, 1995. "Stature and the Standard of Living," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1903-1940, December. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ehbiol:v:7:y:2009:i:2:p:137-152. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.