EE-IO modeling of the environmental impacts of Finnish imports using different data sources
The environmental impacts of Finnish imports were modeled using alternative emission datasets. The first dataset was based on domestic technology assumptions from the Finnish environmentally extended input–output (EE-IO) model. In the second dataset, emissions of the largest volumes of imported goods were substituted for EIOLCA (USA) data and in the third option for data from Ecoinvent and the Danish LCA Food Database. Comparative results show that the environmental impacts of imports based on domestic emission intensities are mostly lower than the alternative approaches. Considering the high level of Finnish environmental protection we concluded that the impacts of imports are underestimated using domestic emission intensities. Additionally, we concluded that hybrid IO modeling will increase the accuracy of IO modeling by using process-based data for the most relevant material flows until a multi-regional IO model for Finland has been developed.
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