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Interaction of water and nitrogen on maize grown for silage

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  • Gheysari, Mahdi
  • Mirlatifi, Seyed Majid
  • Bannayan, Mohammad
  • Homaee, Mehdi
  • Hoogenboom, Gerrit

Abstract

Water scarcity and environmental pollution due to excessive nitrogen (N) applications are important environmental concerns. The Varamin region, which is located in the central part of Iran, is one of the locations where farmers apply 250-350kgNha-1 for silage maize without any concerns with respect to the available water for irrigation. The objective of this study was to quantify the response of the silage maize (Zea mays L.) to variable irrigation and N fertilizer applications under arid and semi-arid conditions and to determine the optimum amount of N fertilizer as a function of irrigation. The maize Hybrid 704 single-cross was planted on 3 August 2003 and on 25 June 2004. The experimental treatments consisted of three N rates (0, 150, and 200kgNha-1) and four levels of irrigation, including two deficit irrigation levels 0.70 SWD (soil water depletion) and 0.85 SWD, a full-irrigation level (1.0 SWD) and an over-irrigation level (1.13 SWD). Twelve treatments were arranged in a strip-plot design in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Gravimetric soil samples were collected in 2003 and a neutron probe was used in 2004 to measure soil water content. Leaf area index, total aboveground biomass (TB), plant height, stem diameter, and leaf, stem, and ear dry weight were measured during the growing seasons and at final harvest. Total aboveground biomass was affected by irrigation (P 0.5). Total aboveground biomass and biomass of the crop components increased as a function of the amount of water and N applied. For each of the irrigation levels, there was an associated optimum amount of N, which increased as the amount of irrigation water that was applied increased. Among the four irrigation levels that were studied, 0.85 SWD was the optimum level of irrigation for the conditions at the experimental site. The results also indicated that an increase in N applications is not a good strategy to compensate for a decrease of TB under drought stress conditions. We concluded that the effect of N fertilizer on TB depends on the availability of water in the soil, and that the amount of N fertilizer applied should be decreased under drought stress conditions. Further research will combine these results with a crop simulation model to help optimize nitrogen and water management for silage maize.

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  • Gheysari, Mahdi & Mirlatifi, Seyed Majid & Bannayan, Mohammad & Homaee, Mehdi & Hoogenboom, Gerrit, 2009. "Interaction of water and nitrogen on maize grown for silage," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(5), pages 809-821, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:5:p:809-821
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    7. Chilundo, Mario & Joel, Abraham & Wesström, Ingrid & Brito, Rui & Messing, Ingmar, 2018. "Influence of irrigation and fertilisation management on the seasonal distribution of water and nitrogen in a semi-arid loamy sandy soil," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 199(C), pages 120-137.
    8. Gilbert C. Sigua & Kenneth C. Stone & Phil J. Bauer & Ariel A. Szogi, 2020. "Efficacy of Supplemental Irrigation and Nitrogen Management on Enhancing Nitrogen Availability and Urease Activity in Soils with Sorghum Production," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(20), pages 1-15, October.
    9. Žalud, Zdeněk & Hlavinka, Petr & Prokeš, Karel & Semerádová, Daniela & Balek Jan, & Trnka, Miroslav, 2017. "Impacts of water availability and drought on maize yield – A comparison of 16 indicators," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 188(C), pages 126-135.
    10. Zhao Chen & Xv Liu & Junpeng Niu & Wennan Zhou & Tian Zhao & Wenbo Jiang & Jian Cui & Robert Kallenbach & Quanzhen Wang, 2019. "Optimizing irrigation and nitrogen fertilization for seed yield in western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Á. Löve] using a large multi-factorial field design," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(6), pages 1-21, June.
    11. Gheysari, Mahdi & Pirnajmedin, Fatemeh & Movahedrad, Hamid & Majidi, Mohammad Mahdi & Zareian, Mohammad Javad, 2021. "Crop yield and irrigation water productivity of silage maize under two water stress strategies in semi-arid environment: Two different pot and field experiments," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 255(C).
    12. Li, Guanghao & Zhao, Bin & Dong, Shuting & Zhang, Jiwang & Liu, Peng & Lu, Weiping, 2020. "Controlled-release urea combining with optimal irrigation improved grain yield, nitrogen uptake, and growth of maize," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 227(C).
    13. Rostamza, Mina & Chaichi, Mohammad-Reza & Jahansouz, Mohammad-Reza & Alimadadi, Ahmad, 2011. "Forage quality, water use and nitrogen utilization efficiencies of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) grown under different soil moisture and nitrogen levels," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(10), pages 1607-1614, August.
    14. Kiani, Mina & Gheysari, Mahdi & Mostafazadeh-Fard, Behrouz & Majidi, Mohammad Mahdi & Karchani, Kazem & Hoogenboom, Gerrit, 2016. "Effect of the interaction of water and nitrogen on sunflower under drip irrigation in an arid region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 162-172.
    15. Jia, Qianmin & Xu, Ranran & Chang, Shenghua & Zhang, Cheng & Liu, Yongjie & Shi, Wei & Peng, Zechen & Hou, Fujiang, 2020. "Planting practices with nutrient strategies to improves productivity of rain-fed corn and resource use efficiency in semi-arid regions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 228(C).
    16. Dokoohaki, Hamze & Gheysari, Mahdi & Mousavi, Sayed-Farhad & Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh & Miguez, Fernando E. & Archontoulis, Sotirios V. & Hoogenboom, Gerrit, 2016. "Coupling and testing a new soil water module in DSSAT CERES-Maize model for maize production under semi-arid condition," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 90-99.
    17. Chilundo, Mario & Joel, Abraham & Wesström, Ingrid & Brito, Rui & Messing, Ingmar, 2016. "Effects of reduced irrigation dose and slow release fertiliser on nitrogen use efficiency and crop yield in a semi-arid loamy sand," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 68-77.
    18. Wang, Yin & Zhang, Xinyue & Chen, Jian & Chen, Anji & Wang, Liying & Guo, Xiaoying & Niu, Yali & Liu, Shuoran & Mi, Guohua & Gao, Qiang, 2019. "Reducing basal nitrogen rate to improve maize seedling growth, water and nitrogen use efficiencies under drought stress by optimizing root morphology and distribution," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 212(C), pages 328-337.

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