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Allein tätige Selbständige: starkes Beschäftigungswachstum, oft nur geringe Einkommen

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  • Karl Brenke

Abstract

Over the past two decades, the number of self-employed in Germany has risen dramatically. This is almost exclusively due to an increasing number of self-employed persons without employees (solo entrepreneurs). There has been a particularly marked escalation in the number of self-employed women. Although some solo entrepreneurs command high incomes, the average earnings of this section of the workforce are less than those of employed people. Many do not earn any more than employees in the low-pay sector. Although the proportion of low earners among solo entrepreneurs has fallen since the middle of the last decade, it still accounts for almost a third of them, or around 800,000 people. Solo self-employment is frequently only a temporary form of employment. Most solo entrepreneurs who cease trading take up dependent employment. This may be partly because self-employment originally only represented a stopgap for them in the absence of alternative employment opportunities. The meager income to be earned through self-employment might also play a role. In den vergangenen beiden Jahrzehnten ist die Zahl der Selbständigen in Deutschland kräftig gestiegen. Dies ist fast ausschließlich auf die Entwicklung bei allein tätigen Selbständigen (Solo-Selbständigen) zurückzuführen. Besonders stark hat sich dabei die Zahl selbständiger Frauen erhöht. Auch wenn ein Teil der Solo-Selbständigen hohe Einkünfte erzielt, liegt das mittlere Einkommen dieser Erwerbstätigengruppe unter dem der Arbeitnehmer. Viele kommen über Einkünfte, wie sie Arbeitnehmer im Niedriglohnsektor beziehen, nicht hinaus. Der Anteil der Geringverdiener unter den Solo-Selbständigen ist zwar seit Mitte der letzten Dekade gesunken, er liegt aber immer noch bei knapp einem Drittel oder etwa 800 000 Personen. Eine Solo-Selbständigkeit ist häufig nur eine vorübergehende Beschäftigungsform. Die meisten der Solo-Selbständigen, die ihr Geschäft aufgeben, wechseln in eine abhängige Beschäftigung. Dies mag auch daran liegen, dass für manche der Gang in die Selbständigkeit wegen fehlender Beschäftigungsalternativen ohnehin nur eine Notlösung war. Zudem könnte Unzufriedenheit mit dem Einkommen aus der selbständigen Beschäftigung eine Rolle spielen.

Suggested Citation

  • Karl Brenke, 2013. "Allein tätige Selbständige: starkes Beschäftigungswachstum, oft nur geringe Einkommen," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 80(7), pages 3-16.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwob:80-7-1
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Michaela Niefert & Sandra Gottschalk, 2014. "Gründerinnen auf dem Vormarsch? – Die Entwicklung der Beteiligung von Frauen am Gründungsgeschehen," AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv, Springer;Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft - German Statistical Society, vol. 8(3), pages 115-145, September.
    2. Susanne Wanger & Roland Weigand & Ines Zapf, 2016. "Measuring hours worked in Germany – Contents, data and methodological essentials of the IAB working time measurement concept
      [Die Berechnung der geleisteten Arbeitsstunden in Deutschland – Inhalte,
      ," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 49(3), pages 213-238, November.
    3. Eichhorst, Werner & Hinte, Holger & Rinne, Ulf & Tobsch, Verena, 2016. "How Big is the Gig? Assessing the Preliminary Evidence on the Effects of Digitalization on the Labor Market," IZA Policy Papers 117, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Lechmann, Daniel S. J. & Wunder, Christoph, 2016. "The dynamics of solo self-employment: Persistence and transition to employership," Discussion Papers 98, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    5. Hershey, D.A. & van Dalen, Harry & Conen, Wieteke & Henkens, Kene, 2017. "Are “voluntary” self-employed better prepared for retirement than “forced” self-employed?," Other publications TiSEM 039ee146-e32b-444a-a5c6-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    6. Daniel S.J. Lechmann & Christoph Wunder, 2017. "The Dynamics of Solo Self-Employment: Persistence and Transition to Employership," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 932, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    7. Sommer, Jörg & Matysik, Alexander & Leusch, Martin, 2013. "Geförderte Existenzgründungen aus Arbeitslosigkeit: Ausgangslage / Subjektive Wahrnehmungen / Perspektiven," Reihe Arbeit und Wirtschaft in Bremen 2, Institut Arbeit und Wirtschaft (IAW), Universität Bremen und Arbeit­nehmer­kammer Bremen.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    self-employed persons without employees in Germany;

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J49 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Other
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion

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