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Liberalisation financiere, speculation et crises bancaires

  • Luis Miotti
  • Dominique Plihon

Les crises bancaires sont une des manifestations les plus importantes de l'instabilite financiere contemporaine. En effet, les systemes bancaires des deux tiers des pays membres du FMI et de la plupart des pays emergents ont connu de graves dysfonctionnements au cours des deux dernieres decennies. D'importantes avancees (significatives) dans la comprehension de ces crises ont ete realisees grace a des travaux empiriques tres documentes, dont certains ont ete effectues par des economistes du FMI. Ces travaux montrent l'existence d'une relation entre les crises bancaires et financieres et les politiques de liberalisation financiere, souvent radicales, menees dans les pays emergents. Ils illustrent egalement le fait que les defaillances bancaires sont au centre des crises economiques et financieres recentes des pays emergents. La plupart de ces analyses, de nature principalement macroeconomique, mettent en avant deux series d'explications : d'une part, la liberalisation financiere rend les banques plus vulnerables aux chocs macroeconomiques et, d'autre part, la fragilite financiere de ces dernieres serait aggravee par l'insuffisance des dispositifs de supervision, particulierement patente dans les pays emergents.

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Article provided by CEPII research center in its journal Economie Internationale.

Volume (Year): (2001)
Issue (Month): 85 ()
Pages: 3-36

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Handle: RePEc:cii:cepiei:2001-1ta
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