IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Quantifying the Effect of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use on Fastball Velocity in Major League Baseball


  • Addona Vittorio

    (Macalester College)

  • Roth Jeremy

    (Macalester College)


Since 2005, Major League Baseball (MLB) has suspended 258 players under its Drug Prevention and Treatment Program. Moreover, the Mitchell Report yielded the names of 89 alleged users of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). This documentation enables quantification of the impact of PEDs on player performance. Literature with this goal is limited, and has focused primarily on batters. Some authors have examined Roger Clemens, but there has been no previous work assessing the influence of PEDs on pitchers more generally. We gathered average fastball velocity from for all MLB pitchers who threw at least 10 innings in a month between 2002 and 2008 (11,860 player months). Pitchers were deemed to be PED users if they were named as such in the Mitchell Report or suspended by MLB for a positive PED test. Human growth hormone (HGH) usage was tracked separately. We modeled fastball velocity by PED and HGH usage, age, a Starter/Reliever indicator, and several control variables. Using PEDs significantly increased average fastball velocity by 1.074 MPH overall. When PED impact was allowed to vary by pitcher type (Starter/Reliever) and age, its benefits were most substantial later in a player's career. For example, at age 35, the effect of PEDs was 1.437 MPH for relievers and 0.988 MPH for starters. HGH use was significantly negatively correlated with fastball velocity. This suggests disproportional HGH use by injured players hoping to hasten their recoveries, and is consistent with frequent explanations provided in the Mitchell Report.

Suggested Citation

  • Addona Vittorio & Roth Jeremy, 2010. "Quantifying the Effect of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use on Fastball Velocity in Major League Baseball," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 1-16, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:jqsprt:v:6:y:2010:i:2:n:6

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: For access to full text, subscription to the journal or payment for the individual article is required.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Schmotzer Brian J & Switchenko Jeff & Kilgo Patrick D, 2008. "Did Steroid Use Enhance the Performance of the Mitchell Batters? The Effect of Alleged Performance Enhancing Drug Use on Offensive Performance from 1995 to 2007," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, De Gruyter, vol. 4(3), pages 1-17, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Nieswiadomy Michael L. & Strazicich Mark C. & Clayton Stephen, 2012. "Was There a Structural Break in Barry Bonds's Bat?," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, De Gruyter, vol. 8(3), pages 1-19, October.
    2. Gould, Eric D. & Kaplan, Todd R., 2011. "Learning unethical practices from a co-worker: The peer effect of Jose Canseco," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 338-348, June.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bpj:jqsprt:v:6:y:2010:i:2:n:6. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peter Golla). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.