Did Steroid Use Enhance the Performance of the Mitchell Batters? The Effect of Alleged Performance Enhancing Drug Use on Offensive Performance from 1995 to 2007
Introduction: The Mitchell Report to the Commissioner of Baseball sought to characterize the extent to which the use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) proliferated through baseball during the last 15 years. While the Report was not primarily initiated to expose individual players, it nonetheless contained detailed accounts of alleged PED abuse by 89 current and former players including seasons in which the abuse occurred and type of abuse (steroids or human growth hormone (HGH)). Previous analyses have largely focused on the impact of PED abuse on individual players (Barry Bonds and Roger Clemens, for instance). The present study integrates data from the Mitchell Report to make inferences about the overall effects of PED abuse on offensive production.Methods: The Lahman database was queried for all offensive seasons from 1995 to 2007 (minimum 50 PA, no pitchers). Runs created per 27 outs (RC27) was used as an estimate of the offensive production of a player in a season. An adjusted RC27 (ADJRC27) was obtained by accounting for career progression effects to reduce the influence of the expected change in performance over time due to age. Information from the Mitchell Report identified each player season as a PED season or a non-PED season. General linear mixed effects models were constructed that modeled ADJRC27 as a function of PED use (Yes or No). Multiple models were considered to assess the PED effect under various assumptions.Results: The baseline model estimated a mean non-steroid ADJRC27 during the study period of 4.58. The effect of steroid use was an additional 0.58 ADJRC27, an increase in production of 12.6% (p=0.0108). Additional models considered the effect of being a player mentioned in the Mitchell Report, adjustments for baseline performance, and the influential effect of Barry Bonds' performance. The estimated steroid effect ranged from 3.9% to 18.0% among twelve different models. Similar analysis of HGH use showed no evidence of performance improvement.Conclusions: This analysis suggests a significant and substantial performance advantage for players who used steroids during the study period. It is estimated that offensive production increased approximately 12% in steroid users versus non-users. This analysis represents the first attempt to quantify the overall effect of PED abuse on offensive performance in baseball.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 4 (2008)
Issue (Month): 3 (July)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.degruyter.com|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jqas|
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bpj:jqsprt:v:4:y:2008:i:3:n:4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peter Golla)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.