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An Empirical Study of Cash Payments

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  • Jeanine Kippers
  • Erjen van Nierop
  • Richard Paap
  • Philip Hans Franses

Abstract

Anytime an individual makes a cash payment, he or she needs to think about the amount to be paid, the coins and notes which are available, and the amount of change. For central banks and retail stores, it is of interest to understand how this individual choice process works. The literature of currency use concerns primarily theory, in the sense that, given certain assumptions, one can derive an optimal denomination range. There is no empirical study which deals with the actual use of coins and notes, given a specific denomination range. In this paper we present such a study, which is based on two rather unique data sets. We use descriptive statistics and a sophisticated model, which is designed for this specific purpose, to see whether two basic premises of the theories on optimal ranges are valid. In contrast to the widely accepted assumptions, we find that individuals appear not to pay efficiently and that they are also not indifferent to the use of coins and notes. In other words, some notes and coins are used less often than expected given the payment situation.

Suggested Citation

  • Jeanine Kippers & Erjen van Nierop & Richard Paap & Philip Hans Franses, 2003. "An Empirical Study of Cash Payments," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 57(4), pages 484-508, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:stanee:v:57:y:2003:i:4:p:484-508
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    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9574.00241
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    Cited by:

    1. Bijwaard, G.E. & Franses, Ph.H.B.F., 2006. "Does rounding matter for payment efficiency?," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2006-43, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    2. Joshi Harit & Mukherjee, Saral, 2017. "Transitions in currency denomination structure as supply disruption and demand distortion: Efficiency, Effectiveness and Bullwhip," IIMA Working Papers WP 2017-05-02, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
    3. Kippers, J. & Franses, Ph.H.B.F., 2003. "Do we need all Euro denominations?," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2003-39, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    4. Bijwaard, Govert E. & Franses, Philip Hans, 2009. "The effect of rounding on payment efficiency," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 1449-1461, February.
    5. Franses, Ph.H.B.F. & Kippers, J., 2003. "How do we pay with euro notes? Empirical evidence from Monopoly experiments," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2003-32, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    6. Franses, Philip Hans & Kippers, Jeanine, 2007. "An empirical analysis of euro cash payments," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(8), pages 1985-1997, November.

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