Sharing the Cost of Global Warming
Due to meteorological factors, the distribution of the environmental damage due to climate change bears no relationship to that of global emissions. We argue in favor of offsetting this discrepancy, and propose a global insurance scheme to be financed according to countries' responsibility for climate change. Because GHG decay very slowly, we argue that the actual burden of global warming should be shared on the basis of cumulated emissions, rather than sharing the expected costs of actual emissions as in a Pigovian taxation scheme. We characterize new versions of two well-known cost-sharing schemes by adapting the responsibility theory of Bossert and Fleurbaey (1996) to a context with externalities. Du fait de phénomènes météorologiques, la répartition des dommages environnementaux est indépendante de celle des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES). Nous explorons la possibilité de corriger cette inadéquation via un « fonds assuranciel global », financé en fonction de la responsabilité de chaque pays concernant les changements climatiques. Étant donné la très longue durée de vie de plusieurs GES dans l'atmosphère, nous avançons que les dommages observés doivent être partagés en fonction des émissions cumulées, plutôt que de partager les coûts futurs espérés des émissions actuelles, comme le ferait une taxe pigouvienne. Nous employons la théorie de la responsabilité de Bossert et Fleurbaey (1996), adaptée à un contexte avec externalités, pour caractériser de nouvelles versions de deux mécanismes de partage connus.
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Volume (Year): 113 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
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