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Causal Effects of PetroCaribe on Sustainable Development: A Synthetic Control Analysis

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  • Acel Jardón
  • Onno Kuik
  • Richard S.J. Tol

Abstract

We examine the causal effects of the energy subsidy programme PetroCaribe in the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. We use the synthetic control method to construct a counterfactual and compare it to the outcomes of the beneficiary countries and thus estimate the magnitude and direction of the PetroCaribe effect. PetroCaribe had a positive effect on economic growth in most of the beneficiary countries; however, this economic boost was not followed by an improvement in social development. Environmentally, PetroCaribe did not negatively or positively impact the environmental quality of the member countries, in the sense that we do not find a significant effect on the trend of CO2 emissions per capita.

Suggested Citation

  • Acel Jardón & Onno Kuik & Richard S.J. Tol, 2020. "Causal Effects of PetroCaribe on Sustainable Development: A Synthetic Control Analysis," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 88(1), pages 156-210, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:manchs:v:88:y:2020:i:1:p:156-210
    DOI: 10.1111/manc.12275
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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