Robustly Hedging Variable Annuities With Guarantees Under Jump and Volatility Risks
Recent variable annuities offer participation in the equity market and attractive protection against downside movements. Accurately quantifying this additional equity market risk and robustly hedging options embedded in the guarantees of variable annuities are new challenges for insurance companies. Due to sensitivities of the benefits to tails of the account value distribution, a simple Black-Scholes model is inadequate in preventing excessive liabilities. A model which realistically describes the real world price dynamics over a long time horizon is essential for the risk management of the variable annuities. In this article, both jump risk and volatility risk are considered for risk management of lookback options embedded in guarantees with a ratchet feature. We evaluate relative performances of delta hedging and dynamic discrete risk minimization hedging strategies. Using the underlying as the hedging instrument, we show that, under a Black-Scholes model, local risk minimization hedging can be significantly better than delta hedging. In addition, we compare risk minimization hedging using the underlying with that of using standard options. We demonstrate that, under a Merton's jump diffusion model, hedging using standard options is superior to hedging using the underlying in terms of the risk reduction. Finally, we consider a market model for volatility risks in which the at-the-money implied volatility is a state variable. We compute risk minimization hedging by modeling at-the-money Black-Scholes implied volatility explicitly; the hedging effectiveness is evaluated, however, under a joint model for the underlying price and implied volatility. Our computational results suggest that, when implied volatility risk is suitably modeled, risk minimization hedging using standard options, compared to hedging using the underlying, can potentially be more effective in risk reduction under both jump and volatility risks. Copyright The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 2007.
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Volume (Year): 74 (2007)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
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