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Going public in the 1980s: Evidence from Sweden


  • Kristian Rydqvist
  • Kenneth Högholm


The paper explores the going public decision in a sample of family-owned corporations in Sweden, 1970-1991. the issuers' motivations for going public are documented and contrasted with economic theory. We find that the average firm is old, that a significant portion of the shares are sold by existing shareholders, that most going public activity took place after an exceptionally sharp stock price increase, and that going public activity is not related to the business cycle. the findings suggest that firms were taken public by their owners who wanted to liquidate their investment to finance consumption or portfolio diversification. the findings strike the common view that firms go public to finance growth. Data from other European countries exhibit similar patterns and suggest that our findings for Sweden may extend to other markets as well. Copyright Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 1995.

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  • Kristian Rydqvist & Kenneth Högholm, 1995. "Going public in the 1980s: Evidence from Sweden," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 1(3), pages 287-315.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:eufman:v:1:y:1995:i:3:p:287-315

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Pagano, Marco & Panetta, Fabio & Zingales, Luigi, 1996. "The stock market as a source of capital: Some lessons from initial public offerings in Italy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1057-1069, April.
    2. Maug, Ernst, 1996. "Corporate control and the market for managerial labour: On the decision to go public," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1049-1056, April.
    3. Pagano, Marco & Randl, Otto & Roell, Ailsa A. & Zechner, Josef, 2001. "What makes stock exchanges succeed? Evidence from cross-listing decisions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 770-782, May.
    4. repec:taf:pocoec:v:29:y:2017:i:1:p:1-26 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Bartholdy, Jan & Olson, Dennis, 2017. "Why are firms listed in one country and private in other countries? The role of industry structure, banking sector and legal system," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 480-499.
    6. Sapovadia, Vrajlal, 2012. "Corporate Governance Issues in Indian Family-Based Businesses," MPRA Paper 55226, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Krzysztof Jackowicz & Oskar Kowalewski & Łukasz Kozłowski & Paulina Roszkowska, 2017. "Issuing bonds, shares or staying private? Determinants of going public in an emerging economy," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 1-26, January.
    8. Sapovadia, Vrajlal, 2010. "Is blood thicker Than Water? Appraising Adequacy of Indian Corporate Governance Framework For Family Based Companies: A Case Study On Satyam Computers," MPRA Paper 55228, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Meluzin, Tomas & Zinecker, Marek & Lapinska, Justyna, 2014. "Determinants of Initial Public Offerings: The Case of Poland || Factores determinantes de una opción pública de venta (OPV): el caso de Polonia," Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa = Journal of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, vol. 18(1), pages 5-17, December.
    10. Marco Pagano & Ailsa A. Röell & Josef Zechner, 2002. "The Geography of Equity Listing: Why Do Companies List Abroad?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2651-2694, December.
    11. Mattia Cattaneo & Michele Meoli, 2013. "Investor protection and IPO survival in the Italian stock market," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on IPOs, chapter 7, pages 141-158 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Huyghebaert, Nancy & Van Hulle, Cynthia, 2006. "Structuring the IPO: Empirical evidence on the portions of primary and secondary shares," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 296-320, January.
    13. Wolf Wagner, 2010. "Divestment, Entrepreneurial Incentives, and the Life Cycle of the Firm," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(5-6), pages 591-611.
    14. Ehrhardt, Olaf & Lahr, Henry, 2008. "Uncertain private benefits and the decision to go public," CEFS Working Paper Series 2008-02, Technische Universität München (TUM), Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS).
    15. Hale, Galina & Santos, João A.C., 2008. "The decision to first enter the public bond market: The role of firm reputation, funding choices, and bank relationships," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1928-1940, September.
    16. repec:eee:fambus:v:8:y:2017:i:2:p:74-86 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Roell, Ailsa, 1996. "The decision to go public: An overview," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1071-1081, April.
    18. Helwege, Jean & Packer, Frank, 2009. "Private matters," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 362-383, July.
    19. Owen, Sian & Yawson, Alfred, 2010. "Corporate life cycle and M&A activity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 427-440, February.
    20. Holmen, Martin & Hogfeldt, Peter, 2004. "A law and finance analysis of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 324-358, July.
    21. Wagner, W.B., 2002. "Divestment, Entrepreneurial Incentives and the Decision to go Public," Discussion Paper 2002-47, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    22. Andriansyah, Andriansyah & Messinis, George, 2016. "Intended use of IPO proceeds and firm performance: A quantile regression approach," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 14-30.
    23. Marc Deloof & Wouter De Maeseneire & Koen Inghelbrecht, 2009. "How Do Investment Banks Value Initial Public Offerings (IPOs)?," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(1-2), pages 130-160.

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