IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/aza/jdb000/y2018v2i4p311-337.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Bitcoin awareness and usage in Canada

Author

Listed:
  • Henry, Christopher S.
  • Huynh, Kim P.
  • Nicholls, Gradon

Abstract

Bitcoin, digital currencies and FinTech have been the subject of vigorous discussion. There has, however, been limited empirical evidence of its adoption and usage. This paper proposes a methodology to collect a nationally representative sample via the Bitcoin Omnibus Survey (BTCOS) in order to track the ubiquity and usage of Bitcoin in Canada. The paper reveals that about 64 per cent of Canadians have heard of Bitcoin, but only 2.9 per cent own it. Awareness of Bitcoin is strongly associated with men, and those with college or university education; additionally, Bitcoin awareness is more concentrated among unemployed individuals. On the other hand, Bitcoin ownership is associated with younger age groups and a high school education. Furthermore, the current authors have constructed a test of Bitcoin characteristics to attempt to gauge the level of knowledge held by respondents who were aware of Bitcoin, including actual owners. Knowledge is positively correlated with Bitcoin adoption. This paper attempts to reconcile the difference in awareness and ownership by deconstructing the transaction and store-of-value motive for holding Bitcoin. The paper concludes with some suggestions to improve future digital currency surveys, in particular to achieve precise estimates from the hard-to-reach population of digital currency users.

Suggested Citation

  • Henry, Christopher S. & Huynh, Kim P. & Nicholls, Gradon, 2018. "Bitcoin awareness and usage in Canada," Journal of Digital Banking, Henry Stewart Publications, vol. 2(4), pages 311-337, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:aza:jdb000:y:2018:v:2:i:4:p:311-337
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://hstalks.com/article/2316/download/
    Download Restriction: Requires a paid subscription for full access.

    File URL: https://hstalks.com/article/2316/
    Download Restriction: Requires a paid subscription for full access.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ben Fung & Kim Huynh & Gerald Stuber, 2015. "The Use of Cash in Canada," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2015(Spring), pages 45-56.
    2. Wilko Bolt & Maarten R.C. Van Oordt, 2020. "On the Value of Virtual Currencies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(4), pages 835-862, June.
    3. Anton Badev & Matthew Chen, 2014. "Bitcoin: Technical Background and Data Analysis," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2014-104, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Wilko Bolt & Maarten R.C. Van Oordt, 2020. "On the Value of Virtual Currencies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(4), pages 835-862, June.
    5. Neil Gandal & Hanna Halaburda, 2014. "Competition in the Cryptocurrency Market," Staff Working Papers 14-33, Bank of Canada.
    6. Matthias Schonlau & Elisabeth Liebau, 2012. "Respondent-driven sampling," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 12(1), pages 72-93, March.
    7. Athey, Susan & Parashkevov, Ivo & Sarukkai, Vishnu & Xia, Jing, 2016. "Bitcoin Pricing, Adoption, and Usage: Theory and Evidence," Research Papers 3469, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    8. Christian Catalini & Catherine Tucker, 2016. "Seeding the S-Curve? The Role of Early Adopters in Diffusion," NBER Working Papers 22596, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Carlos Arango & Angelika Welte, 2012. "The Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Methodology and Key Results," Discussion Papers 12-6, Bank of Canada.
    10. Ben Fung & Kim Huynh & Leonard Sabetti, 2012. "The Impact of Retail Payment Innovations on Cash Usage," Staff Working Papers 12-14, Bank of Canada.
    11. Heng Chen & Marie-Hélène Felt & Kim P. Huynh, 2017. "Retail payment innovations and cash usage: accounting for attrition by using refreshment samples," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 180(2), pages 503-530, February.
    12. Geoffrey R. Dunbar & Chunling Fu, 2015. "Sheltered Income: Estimating Income Under-Reporting in Canada, 1998 and 2004," Staff Working Papers 15-22, Bank of Canada.
    13. Carlos Arango & Kim Huynh & Ben Fung & Gerald Stuber, 2012. "The Changing Landscape for Retail Payments in Canada and the Implications for the Demand for Cash," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2012(Autumn), pages 31-40.
    14. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Rallye Shen, 2015. "2013 Methods-of-Payment Survey Results," Discussion Papers 15-4, Bank of Canada.
    15. Ben Fung & Kim Huynh & Anneke Kosse, 2017. "Acceptance and Use of Payments at the Point of Sale in Canada," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2017(Autumn), pages 14-26.
    16. Anneke Kosse & Heng Chen & Marie-Hélène Felt & Valéry Dongmo Jiongo & Kerry Nield & Angelika Welte, 2017. "The Costs of Point-of-Sale Payments in Canada," Discussion Papers 17-4, Bank of Canada.
    17. Lusardi, Annamaria & Mitchell, Olivia S., 2011. "Financial literacy around the world: an overview," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 497-508, October.
    18. Paolo Tasca & Adam Hayes & Shaowen Liu, 2018. "The evolution of the bitcoin economy," Journal of Risk Finance, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 19(2), pages 94-126, March.
    19. Ben Fung & Hanna Halaburda, 2014. "Understanding Platform-Based Digital Currencies," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2014(Spring), pages 12-20.
    20. Schonlau, Matthias & Liebau, Elisabeth, 2012. "Respondent-Driven Sampling," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 12(1), pages 72-93.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hanna Halaburda & Guillaume Haeringer & Joshua Gans & Neil Gandal, 2022. "The Microeconomics of Cryptocurrencies," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 60(3), pages 971-1013, September.
    2. Lin William Cong & Xi Li & Ke Tang & Yang Yang, 2023. "Crypto Wash Trading," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 69(11), pages 6427-6454, November.
    3. Daniela Balutel & Christopher Henry & Jorge Vásquez & Marcel Voia, 2022. "Bitcoin adoption and beliefs in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 55(4), pages 1729-1761, November.
    4. Walter Engert & Ben Fung & Scott Hendry, 2018. "Is a Cashless Society Problematic?," Discussion Papers 18-12, Bank of Canada.
    5. Daniela Balutel & Christopher Henry & Doina Rusu, 2023. "Cryptoasset Ownership and Use in Canada: An Update for 2022," Discussion Papers 2023-14, Bank of Canada.
    6. Nils Brouwer & Jakob de Haan, 2024. "What Drives Households’ Knowledge about Cryptocurrencies?," Working Papers 799, DNB.
    7. Auer, Raphael & Tercero-Lucas, David, 2022. "Distrust or speculation? The socioeconomic drivers of U.S. cryptocurrency investments," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    8. Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald & Helmut Stix, 2018. "How Austrians bank and pay in an increasingly digitalized world – results from an OeNB survey," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q3/18, pages 52-89.
    9. Graf von Luckner, Clemens & Reinhart, Carmen M. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2023. "Decrypting new age international capital flows," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 104-122.
    10. Raphael Warren Jankeeparsad & Dev Tewari, 2018. "End-User Adoption of Bitcoin in South Africa," Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, AMH International, vol. 10(5), pages 230-243.
    11. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson, 2019. "2018 Bitcoin Omnibus Survey: Awareness and Usage," Discussion Papers 2019-10, Bank of Canada.
    12. Yongzhi Gong & Xiaofei Tang & En-Chung Chang, 2023. "Group norms and policy norms trigger different autonomous motivations for Chinese investors in cryptocurrency investment," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 10(1), pages 1-10, December.
    13. Sejung Park & Han Woo Park, 2020. "Diffusion of cryptocurrencies: web traffic and social network attributes as indicators of cryptocurrency performance," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 54(1), pages 297-314, February.
    14. Fujiki, Hiroshi, 2020. "Who adopts crypto assets in Japan? Evidence from the 2019 financial literacy survey," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).
    15. Juneman Abraham & Dian Utami Sutiksno & Nuning Kurniasih & Ari Warokka, 2019. "Acceptance and Penetration of Bitcoin: The Role of Psychological Distance and National Culture," SAGE Open, , vol. 9(3), pages 21582440198, July.
    16. Chunling Li & Nosherwan Khaliq & Leslie Chinove & Usama Khaliq & József Popp & Judit Oláh, 2023. "Cryptocurrency Acceptance Model to Analyze Consumers’ Usage Intention: Evidence From Pakistan," SAGE Open, , vol. 13(1), pages 21582440231, March.
    17. Anil Savio Kavuri & Alistair Milne, 2019. "FinTech and the future of financial services: What are the research gaps?," CAMA Working Papers 2019-18, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    18. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls, 2018. "Bitcoin Awareness and Usage in Canada: An Update," Staff Analytical Notes 2018-23, Bank of Canada.
    19. Walter Engert & Ben Fung, 2017. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Motivations and Implications," Discussion Papers 17-16, Bank of Canada.
    20. Clemens Graf von Luckner & Carmen Reinhart & Kenneth Rogoff, 2023. "Decrypting New Age International Capital Flows," Post-Print hal-04603357, HAL.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls, 2017. "Bitcoin Awareness and Usage in Canada," Staff Working Papers 17-56, Bank of Canada.
    2. Fung, Ben & Huynh, Kim P. & Nield, Kerry & Welte, Angelika, 2018. "Merchant acceptance of cash and credit cards at the point of sale," Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, Henry Stewart Publications, vol. 12(2), pages 150-165, July.
    3. Marie-Hélène Felt, 2018. "A Look Inside the Box: Combining Aggregate and Marginal Distributions to Identify Joint Distributions," Staff Working Papers 18-29, Bank of Canada.
    4. Engert, Walter & Fung, Ben & Segendorf, Björn, 2019. "A Tale of Two Countries: Cash Demand in Canada and Sweden," Working Paper Series 376, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    5. Geneviève Vallée, 2018. "How Long Does It Take You to Pay? A Duration Study of Canadian Retail Transaction Payment Times," Staff Working Papers 18-46, Bank of Canada.
    6. Heng Chen & Marie-Hélène Felt & Kim P. Huynh, 2017. "Retail payment innovations and cash usage: accounting for attrition by using refreshment samples," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 180(2), pages 503-530, February.
    7. Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Oleksandr Shcherbakov, 2019. "Explaining the Interplay Between Merchant Acceptance and Consumer Adoption in Two-Sided Markets for Payment Methods," Staff Working Papers 19-32, Bank of Canada.
    8. Walter Engert & Ben Fung, 2017. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Motivations and Implications," Discussion Papers 17-16, Bank of Canada.
    9. Ueda, Kozo, 2024. "Effects of bank branch/ATM consolidations on cash demand: Evidence from bank account transaction data in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).
    10. Schilling, Linda & Uhlig, Harald, 2019. "Some simple bitcoin economics," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 16-26.
    11. Valéry Dongmo Jiongo & Pierre Nguimkeu, 2018. "Bootstrapping Mean Squared Errors of Robust Small-Area Estimators: Application to the Method-of-Payments Data," Staff Working Papers 18-28, Bank of Canada.
    12. Shy, Oz, 2021. "Cashless stores and cash users," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 622-638.
    13. Ben Fung & Miguel Molico & Gerald Stuber, 2014. "Electronic Money and Payments: Recent Developments and Issues," Discussion Papers 14-2, Bank of Canada.
    14. Kim Huynh & Jozsef Molnar & Oleksandr Shcherbakov & Qinghui Yu, 2020. "Demand for Payment Services and Consumer Welfare: The Introduction of a Central Bank Digital Currency," Staff Working Papers 20-7, Bank of Canada.
    15. Garratt, Rodney J. & van Oordt, Maarten R.C., 2022. "Entrepreneurial incentives and the role of initial coin offerings," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    16. Andrew Detzel & Hong Liu & Jack Strauss & Guofu Zhou & Yingzi Zhu, 2021. "Learning and predictability via technical analysis: Evidence from bitcoin and stocks with hard‐to‐value fundamentals," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 50(1), pages 107-137, March.
    17. Geoffrey R. Dunbar, 2019. "Demographics and the demand for currency," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 57(4), pages 1375-1409, October.
    18. Wilko Bolt & Maarten R.C. Van Oordt, 2020. "On the Value of Virtual Currencies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(4), pages 835-862, June.
    19. Dimitrios Koutmos & Wang Chun Wei, 2023. "Nowcasting bitcoin’s crash risk with order imbalance," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 61(1), pages 125-154, July.
    20. Fujiki, Hiroshi & Tanaka, Migiwa, 2017. "Choice of payment instrument for low-value transactions in Japan," International Cash Conference 2017 – War on Cash: Is there a Future for Cash? 162909, Deutsche Bundesbank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bitcoin; digital currencies; FinTech; surveys;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aza:jdb000:y:2018:v:2:i:4:p:311-337. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Henry Stewart Talks (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.