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How Do Gender Inequalities Hinder Development ? Cross-Country Evidence


  • Gaëlle Ferrant


Using cross-country and panel regressions, this paper investigates how gender inequality hinders economic and human development: a one standard deviation change in the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Index (MGII) will increase long-run per capita income by 3.4% and the Human Development Index (HDI) by 4.6%. These results are mainly driven by inequalities in the identity dimension and in the access to economic activity for economic development, and by inequalities within the family and in the access to education for human development. Gender inequality may then explain differences in economic development: 10% of the long-run income difference between South Asia and East Asia & the Pacific can be accounted for by the difference in gender inequality. Moreover, this paper provides evidence of a vicious circle between gender inequality and long term income. Gender inequality is measured by a composite index with endogenous weightings: the MGII. These results are robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities.

Suggested Citation

  • Gaëlle Ferrant, 2015. "How Do Gender Inequalities Hinder Development ? Cross-Country Evidence," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 117-118, pages 313-352.
  • Handle: RePEc:adr:anecst:y:2015:i:117-118:p:313-352
    DOI: 10.15609/annaeconstat2009.117-118.313

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    Cited by:

    1. Tina T He & Wilson XB Li, 2021. "Revisiting tourism’s additional impact on income," Tourism Economics, , vol. 27(1), pages 149-167, February.
    2. Brindusa Anghel & J. Ignacio Conde-Ruiz & Ignacio Marra de Artíñano, 2019. "Brechas Salariales de Género en España," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 229(2), pages 87-119, June.
    3. Haeyoung Jang & Seung-Ho Kwon, 2022. "Understanding women’s empowerment in post-Covid Korea: A historical analysis," The Economic and Labour Relations Review, , vol. 33(2), pages 351-376, June.
    4. Paola Demartini, 2019. "Why and How Women in Business Can Make Innovations in Light of the Sustainable Development Goals," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, vol. 9(3), pages 1-8, August.
    5. Ferrant, Gaëlle & Tuccio, Michele, 2015. "South–South Migration and Discrimination Against Women in Social Institutions: A Two-way Relationship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 240-254.
    6. Adeline Nnenna Idike & Remi Chukwudi Okeke & Cornelius O. Okorie & Francisca N. Ogba & Christiana A. Ugodulunwa, 2020. "Gender, Democracy, and National Development in Nigeria," SAGE Open, , vol. 10(2), pages 21582440209, May.
    7. Serap Bedir Kara & Aysegul Coskun, 2020. "The Impact of Gender Inequalities in Education on Income Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)," Eurasian Journal of Social Sciences, Eurasian Publications, vol. 8(4), pages 148-162.
    8. Baroki, Robert & Joshi, Christian & Maisonnave, Hélène & Mariam, Anastasie Bulumba, 2021. "Impact of pro-gender public policies in the agricultural sectors on women's employment in a context of economic dependence on natural resources: A case study of the DRC," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 315114, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation


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