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Arbeitsrechtliche Schwellenwerte: Regelungen an der Schwelle zur Unüberschaubarkeit

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  • Koller, Lena
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    Abstract

    Im deutschen Arbeitsrecht gibt es eine Vielzahl arbeitsrechtlicher Schwellenwerte. Diese geben an, ab welcher Mitarbeiterzahl ein Gesetz bzw. eine Regelung wie z. B. der Kündigungsschutz zur Anwendung kommt. Wie in der Arbeit gezeigt wird, erschweren unterschiedliche Definitionen der Mitarbeiterzahl den Überblick über diese Regelungen. Eine Simulation unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzungen einer gegebenen Belegschaftsstärke macht deutlich, dass je nach Struktur der Belegschaft (Anzahl Teilzeitbeschäftigter, Auszubildender, Leiharbeiter usw.) unterschiedliche arbeitsrechtliche Schwellenwerte über- bzw. unterschritten werden können. Da die Überschreitung von Schwellenwerten meist zu zusätzlichen Kosten für die Arbeitgeber führt, wird oftmals vermutet, dass damit die Einstellung zusätzlicher Arbeitskräfte behindert wird. Ein Literaturüberblick zeigt, dass laut Betriebsbefragungen Schwellenwerte eine negative Wirkung auf das Beschäftigungswachstum haben. Ökonometrische Analysen können dies jedoch meist nicht bestätigen. -- German labour law contains a large number of thresholds. These indicate which number of employees in the establishment is needed so that the law or regulation comes into effect. The paper shows how different definitions of the term ?number of employees? can make it difficult for enterprises to understand these regulations. A simulation reveals that depending on the structure of employment (number of part-time workers, trainees, temporary workers etc.) an enterprise with a given number of employees may exceed different thresholds. Since crossing a threshold results in additional costs for the employer thresholds are supposed to hinder the engagement of new employees. A literature review shows that employer surveys find negative effects on employment growth, while in most cases this fact cannot be proved by econometric analyses.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics in its series Discussion Papers with number 40.

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    Date of creation: 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:faulre:40

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    Web page: http://www.arbeitsmarkt.wiso.uni-erlangen.de/english-version/
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    Keywords: Schwellenwerte; Beschäftigung; Deutschland;

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    References

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    1. Tito Boeri & Juan F. Jimeno, 2003. "The Effects of Employment Protection: Learning from Variable Enforcement," Working Papers 252, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    2. Boockmann, Bernhard & Hagen, Tobias, 2001. "The use of flexible working contracts in West Germany: evidence from an establishment panel," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-33, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    3. Bauer, Thomas K. & Bender, Stefan & Bonin, Holger, 2004. "Dismissal protection and worker flows in small establishments," IAB Discussion Paper 200401, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    4. Fabiano Schivardi & Roberto Torrini, 2004. "Threshold Effects and Firm Size: the Case of Firing Costs," CEP Discussion Papers dp0633, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    5. Schank, Thorsten & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "Works Councils – Sand or Grease in the Operation of German Firms?," IZA Discussion Papers 648, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Verick, Sher, 2004. "Threshold Effects of Dismissal Protection Legislation in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 991, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Burgert, Derik, 2005. "The Impact of German Job Protection Legislation on Job Creation in Small Establishments - An Application of the Regression Discontinuity Design," MPRA Paper 5971, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Pietro Garibaldi & Lia Pacelli & Andrea Borgarello, 2003. "Employment Protection Legislation and the Size of Firms," Working Papers 247, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    9. Joachim Merz, 2005. "The Impact of German Job Protection Legislation on Job Creation in Small Establishments - An Application of the Regression Discontinuity Design," FFB-Discussionpaper, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg 49, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
    10. Addison, John T & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2001. "Work Councils in Germany: Their Effects on Establishment Performance," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(4), pages 659-94, October.
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    Cited by:
    1. Bernhard Boockmann & Susanne Steffes, 2010. "Workers, Firms, or Institutions: What Determines Job Duration for Male Employees in Germany?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 64(1), pages 109-127, October.
    2. Bernhard Boockmann & Daniel Gutknecht & Susanne Steffes, 2008. "Effects of Dismissal Protection Legislation on Individual Employment Stability in Germany," IAW Discussion Papers, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW) 45, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
    3. Burgert, Derik, 2006. "Einstellungschancen von Älteren – Wie wirkt der Schwellenwert im Kündigungsschutz?," MPRA Paper 5846, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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