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Determinants of European banks' engagement in loan securitization

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  • Hänsel, Dennis N.
  • Bannier, Christina E.

Abstract

We analyze collateralized loan obligation (CLO) transactions by European banks (1997 - 2004), trying to identify firm-specific and macroeconomic factors influencing an institution's securitization decision. CLO issuance seems to be an appropriate funding tool for large banks with high risk and low liquidity. However, risk transfer turns out to be limited in the extremes. Controlling for fixed effects, we find that fixed costs of securitization are surmountable also for smaller institutions. Interestingly, commercial banks seem to use loan securitization to access capital-market based businesses and the associated fee income. Regulatory capital arbitrage does not appear to have driven the market. -- Trotz des rasanten Wachstums des Marktes für Kreditrisikotransfer sind die Motive der Banken für die Verbriefung von Kreditportfolios noch nicht vollständig geklärt. Kreditverbriefungen führen zwar zu höherer Liquidität, einer Reduktion von Kredit- und Zinsrisiken, einer Steigerung von Provisionseinkommen, möglicherweise auch einer Verbesserung der Kapitalstruktur, jedoch entscheiden sich einige Banken trotzdem gegen eine Strukturierung und Weiterreichung ihrer Kreditportfolios. Unter den Nachteilen der Verbriefung werden unter anderem die relativ hohen fixen Kosten der erstmaligen Errichtung einer Verbriefungsstruktur sowie eventuelle Steuernachteile von nicht auf der Bilanz gehaltenen Krediten genannt. Weiterhin ermöglicht das neue Basel-II Regelwerk keine ?Arbitrage regulatorischen Eigenkapitals? via Kreditverbriefung mehr, anders als die weniger risikosensitive Eigenkapitalunterlegung unter den alten Basel-Richtlinien. Unsere Studie analysiert ?Collateralized Loan Obligation? (CLO) Transaktionen von Europäischen Banken in den Jahren 1997-2004. Ziel ist es, Faktoren zu isolieren, die die Entscheidung einer Bank, Kredite zu verbriefen, beeinflusst haben. Während wir einen Einfluss regulatorischer Arbitrage nicht vollkommen ausschließen können, zeigt unsere Studie, dass die wesentlichen Bestimmungsfaktoren vielmehr individuelle Faktoren der Banken sind. So ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass eine Bank Kredite verbrieft, umso höher, je größer die Bank, je geringer ihre Liquidität und je höher ihr erwartetes Kreditrisiko ist. Kreditverbriefungen werden offensichtlich als Möglichkeit des Kreditrisikotransfers genutzt. Allerdings zeigt sich, dass Banken mit dem höchsten Kreditrisiko ihre Verbriefungsaktivitäten mit zunehmendem Risiko einstellen, so dass die Risikotransferfunktion nur begrenzt zu nutzen zu sein scheint. Für am Aktienmarkt notierte Banken treffen obige Aussagen noch stärker zu. Interessanterweise zeigt sich hier sogar ein ?negativer? regulatorischer Arbitrageeffekt : Banken mit niedrigem regulatorischem Eigenkapital verbriefen weniger Kredite als Banken mit höherem Eigenkapital. Die neuen Eigenkapitalrichtlinien nach Basel II sollten daher das zukünftige Wachstum des Kreditrisikotransfermarktes nicht beeinträchtigen. Bemerkenswerterweise scheint auch die Bankengröße eine weniger wichtige Rolle zu spielen als zunächst gedacht. Auch kleinere Banken sind somit in der Lage, die mit einer Kreditverbriefung verbundenen Fixkosten zu tragen. Es ist zu vermuten, dass gerade traditionelle Kreditbanken die Verbriefung von Kreditportfolios unter anderem auch nutzen, um indirekt dem ?investment-banking? verwandte Geschäftsbereiche und die entsprechenden Provisionseinkommen zu erschließen.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre in its series Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies with number 2008,10.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp2:7320

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Keywords: Securitization; credit risk transfer; collateralized loan obligations;

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References

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Cited by:
  1. Clara Cardone Riportella & Reyes Samaniego Medina & Antonio Trujillo Ponce, 2009. "What do we know about banks securitisation? the spanish experience," Business Economics Working Papers wb093904, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
  2. Gong, D. & Ligthart, J.E., 2013. "Does Corporate Income Taxation Affect Securitization? Evidence from OECD Banks," Discussion Paper 2013-067, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Michalak, Tobias C. & Uhde, André, 2012. "Credit risk securitization and bank soundness in Europe," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 272-285.

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