Measuring and Analyzing Returns on Aggregate Residential Housing
AbstractThis paper computes an aggregate real after-tax rate of return on residential real estate in the United States. We account for net rental income, capital gain, and subsidies due to tax provisions for homeowners in constructing a total return measure. We also compute separate returns to owners and rentiers (that is, households who rent to others). Both quarterly and annual data over 1952-2000 period are used in the analysis. We compare our measure of return with that in the literature and analyze how housing compares to other assets in the household portfolio. Our approach provides a more comprehensive measure of return than that found in the literature. We confirm that residential housing provides a high average return and low volatility, has low correlation with other assets such as stocks and bonds, and exhibits high positive correlation with inflation. The efficient frontier analysis shows that the residential housing providing diversification should be an important part of the household portfolio. Our results also indicate that housing may be as good an investment as stocks (S&P 500).
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by EconWPA in its series Finance with number 0510005.
Date of creation: 11 Oct 2005
Date of revision:
Note: Type of Document - pdf
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://126.96.36.199
housing return; measurement; efficient frontier; household portfolio;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G - Financial Economics
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Roger G. Ibbotson & Laurence B. Siegel, 1984. "Real Estate Returns: A Comparison with Other Investments," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 12(3), pages 219-242.
- Karl E. Case & Robert J. Shiller, 1990.
"Forecasting Prices and Excess Returns in the Housing Market,"
Real Estate Economics,
American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 18(3), pages 253-273.
- Karl E. Case & Robert J. Shiller, 1990. "Forecasting Prices and Excess Returns in the Housing Market," NBER Working Papers 3368, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- William N. Goetzmann & Roger G. Ibbotson, 1990. "The Performance Of Real Estate As An Asset Class," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 3(1), pages 65-76.
- Blake, David, 1996. "Efficiency, Risk Aversion and Portfolio Insurance: An Analysis of Financial Asset Portfolios Held by Investors in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1175-92, September.
- Flavin, Marjorie & Yamashita, Takashi, 1998. "Owner-Occupied Housing and the Composition of the Household Portfolio over the Life Cycle," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt89x293v9, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
- Joe Peek & James A. Wilcox, 1991.
"The Measurement and Determinants of Single-Family House Prices,"
Real Estate Economics,
American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 19(3), pages 353-382.
- Joe Peek & James A. Wilcox, 1991. "The measurement and determinants of single-family house prices," Working Papers 91-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Michael T. Bond & Michael J. Seiler, 1998. "Real Estate Returns and Inflation: An Added Variable Approach," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 15(3), pages 327-338.
- Fogler, H Russell & Granito, Michael R & Smith, Laurence R, 1985. " A Theoretical Analysis of Real Estate Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 711-19, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.