Symmetric and Asymmetric Equilibria in a Spatial Duopoly
AbstractWe describe a spatial duopoly in a Hotelling model with quadratic transportation costs where consumers are distributed according to a symmetric density whose degree of concentration is variable. By solving the two-stage game in prices and locations as a function of the concentration index, we analyse the effects on the firms’optimal choices in a unbounded strategy space of an increasing agglomeration of consumers in the middle. Traditional horizontal differentiation-locational models assume that consumers are uniformly distributed over the characteristics space. With a few exceptions, the situations in which the consumers' preferences are concentrated on a subsection of the available varieties have been neglected. This issue was successfully addressed by Tabuchi and Thisse (1995), who explicitly solved the price-location problem for two firms in the presence of a symmetric triangular consumers’ distribution. They showed that in this case any symmetric location cannot be an equilibrium, due to a discontinuity of the reactions functions generated by the non-differentiability of the consumers’ density at its modal value; rather, their model exhibits two subgame perfect asymmetric equilibria characterised by strong product differentiation. In this paper, we assume that consumers are distributed according to a trapezoid distribution. This allows a simple parametrization of the degree of consumers' concentration, which includes the uniform and the triangular distribution as limit cases, and makes possible to solve the price-location problem as a function of the concentration index. Therefore we are able to find a more general explicit solution which covers those previously discussed in the literature. The basic results of the paper are the following. A symmetric equilibrium exists for all values of the concentration parameter, provided that the density is differentiable at the centre of its support. A higher degree of the consumers’ concentration around the middle induces firms to move inwards, in order to locate closer to the growing share of consumers: competition in the highly populated central area of the market reduces differentiation and strengthens price competition. The overall equilibrium shows clearly that the demand effect outweighs the strategic effect. However the symmetric equilibrium may be not unique. When concentration becomes sufficiently high, two asymmetric specular equilibria coexist with the symmetric one. They arise for a degree of concentration lower than that implied by a triangular distribution, with price-location choices collapsing in the limit to those identified by Tabuchi and Thisse. At these equilibria one firm locates in the central area of the market, while the other locates outside the market space. These results are consistent with the idea that a higher concentration of consumers around the centre induces firms to reduce the optimal product differentiation and offer theoretical support to the intuition that homogeneity of consumers might have important implications in terms of reducing the firms' market power. However, our findings suggest that in models of spatial competition realistic representations of the demand side may generate a ‘strange’ interplay between the strategic effect and the demand effect which may cause a failure of the uniqueness property and weakens the economic interpretation of equilibria.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa03p194.
Date of creation: Aug 2003
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria
Web page: http://www.ersa.org
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-02-29 (All new papers)
- NEP-GEO-2004-02-29 (Economic Geography)
- NEP-URE-2004-02-29 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- repec:kap:jeczfn:v:82:y:2003:i:4:p:555-568 is not listed on IDEAS
- Alessandra Chirco & Luca Lambertini & Fabio Zagonari, 2003.
"How demand affects optimal prices and product differentiation,"
Economics of Governance,
Springer, vol. 82(4), pages 555-568, November.
- Alessandra Chirco & Luca Lambertini & Fabio Zagonari, 2003. "How demand affects optimal prices and product differentiation," Papers in Regional Science, Springer, vol. 82(4), pages 555-568, November.
- Neven, D. & Thisse, J-F., 1989. "On Quality And Variety Competition," CORE Discussion Papers 1989020, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Hinloopen, Jeroen & van Marrewijk, Charles, 1999. "On the limits and possibilities of the principle of minimum differentiation1," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 735-750, July.
- d'Aspremont, C & Gabszewicz, Jean Jaskold & Thisse, J-F, 1979.
"On Hotelling's "Stability in Competition","
Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1145-50, September.
- Corrado Benassi & Alessandra Chirco & Marcella Scrimitore, 2002. "Income concentration and market demand," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(4), pages 584-596, October.
- Tabuchi, Takatoshi, 1994. "Two-stage two-dimensional spatial competition between two firms," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 207-227, April.
- Tabuchi, Takatoshi & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1995.
"Asymmetric equilibria in spatial competition,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 213-227.
- Caplin, Andrew S & Nalebuff, Barry J, 1986. "Multi-dimensional Product Differentiation and Price Competition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(0), pages 129-45, Suppl. No.
- Economides, Nicholas, 1986. "Minimal and maximal product differentiation in Hotelling's duopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 67-71.
- Torrisi, Gianpiero, 2008. "The model of the linear city under a triangular distribution of consumers: an empirical analysis on price and location of beverage kiosks in Catania," MPRA Paper 12694, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Michal Król, 2009. "The role of demand uncertainty in the two stage Hotelling model," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 0904, Economics, The University of Manchester.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.