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U.S.-Japan and U.S.-China trade conflict : export growth, reciprocity, and the international trading system

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  • Bown, Chad P.
  • McCulloch, Rachel

Abstract

First Japan and more recently China have pursued export-oriented growth strategies. While other Asian countries have done likewise, Japan and China are of particular interest because their economies are so large and the size of the associated bilateral trade imbalances with the United States so conspicuous. In this paper the authors focus on U.S. efforts to restore the reciprocal GATT/WTO market-access bargain in the face of such large imbalances and the significant spillovers to the international trading system. The paper highlights similarities and differences in the two cases. The authors describe U.S. attempts to reduce the bilateral imbalances through targeted trade policies intended to slow growth of U.S. imports from these countries or increase growth of U.S. exports to them. They then examine how these trade policy responses, as well as U.S. efforts to address what were perceived as underlying causes of the imbalances, influenced the evolution of the international trading system. Finally, the authors compare the macroeconomic conditions associated with the bilateral trade imbalances and their implications for the conclusions of the two episodes.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5102.

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Date of creation: 01 Oct 2009
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5102

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Keywords: Free Trade; Trade Law; Economic Theory&Research; Trade Policy; Currencies and Exchange Rates;

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References

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  1. Robert W. Staiger & Kyle Bagwell, 1999. "An Economic Theory of GATT," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 215-248, March.
  2. Freund, Caroline & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2008. "Export surges : the oower of a competitive currency," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4750, The World Bank.
  3. Dean, Judith M. & Lovely, Mary E. & Mora, Jesse, 2009. "Decomposing China-Japan-U.S. trade: Vertical specialization, ownership, and organizational form," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 596-610, November.
  4. Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Kimberly Ann Elliott, 1994. "Measuring the Costs of Protection in the United States," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 77.
  5. James Harrigan & Geoffrey Barrows, 2009. "Testing the Theory of Trade Policy: Evidence from the Abrupt End of the Multifiber Arrangement," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(2), pages 282-294, May.
  6. Ito, Hiro, 2009. "U.S. current account debate with Japan then, with China now," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 294-313, May.
  7. Chad P . Bown, 2002. "The Economics of Trade Disputes, the GATT's Article XXIII, and the WTO's Dispute Settlement Understanding," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 283-323, November.
  8. Christian Broda & Nuno Limao & David E. Weinstein, 2008. "Optimal Tariffs and Market Power: The Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 2032-65, December.
  9. Bown, Chad P., 2002. "Why are safeguards under the WTO so unpopular?," World Trade Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(01), pages 47-62, March.
  10. C. Fred Bergsten & Charles Freeman & Nicholas R. Lardy, 2008. "China's Rise: Challenges and Opportunities," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 4174.
  11. Ma, Alyson & Assche, Ari Van & Hong, Chang, 2009. "Global Production Networks and the People's Republic of China's Processing Trade," ADBI Working Papers 175, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  12. Bown, Chad P. & Sykes, Alan O., 2008. "The Zeroing Issue: a critical analysis of Softwood V," World Trade Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(01), pages 121-142, January.
  13. Dani Rodrik, 2008. "The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(2 (Fall)), pages 365-439.
  14. Ma, Alyson C. & Van Assche, Ari & Hong, Chang, 2009. "Global production networks and China's processing trade," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 640-654, November.
  15. Catherine L. Mann, 2002. "Perspectives on the U.S. Current Account Deficit and Sustainability," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(3), pages 131-152, Summer.
  16. Greaney, Theresa M. & Li, Yao, 2009. "Assessing foreign direct investment relationships between China, Japan, and the United States," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 611-625, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Rachel McCulloch, 2010. "The International Trading System and Its Future," Working Papers 08, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.
  2. Aaditya Mattoo & Arvind Subramanian, 2012. "China and the World Trading System," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(12), pages 1733-1771, December.
  3. Sun, Sizhong, 2012. "The role of FDI in domestic exporting: Evidence from China," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 434-441.

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