Improving air quality in metropolitan Mexico City : an economic valuation
AbstractMexico City has for years experienced high levels of ozone and particulate air pollution. In 1995-99 the entire population of the Mexico City metropolitan area was exposed to annual average concentrations of fine particulate pollution (particulates with a diameter of less than 10micrometers, or PM10) exceeding 50 micrograms per cubic meter, the annual average standard in both Mexico and the United States. Two million people were exposed to annual average PM10 levels of more than 75 micrograms per cubic meter. The daily maximum one-hour ozone standard was exceeded at least 300 days a year. The Mexico Air Quality Management Team documents population-weighted exposures to ozone and PM10 between 1995 and 1999, project exposures in 2010, and computes the value of four scenarios for 2010: A 10 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. A 20 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. Achievement of ambient air quality standards across the metropolitan area. A 68 percent reduction in ozone and a 47 percent reduction in PM10 across the metropolitan area. The authors calculate the health benefits of reducing ozone and PM10 for each scenario using dose-response functions from the peer-reviewed literature. They value cases of morbidity and premature mortality avoided using three approaches: Cost of illness and forgone earnings only (low estimate). Cost of illness, forgone earnings, and willingness to pay for avoided morbidity (central case estimate). Cost of illness, forgone earnings, willingness to pay for avoided morbidity, and willingness to pay for avoided mortality (high estimate). The results suggest that the benefits of a 10 percent reduction in ozone and PM10 in 2010 are about $760 million (in 1999 U.S. dollars) annually in the central case. The benefits of a 20 percent reduction in ozone and PM10 are about $1.49 billion annually. In each case the benefits of reducing ozone amount to about 15 percent of the total benefits. By estimating the magnitude of the benefits from air pollution control, the authors provide motivation for examining specific policies that could achieve the air pollution reductions that they value. They also provide unit values for the benefits from reductions in ambient air pollution (for example, per microgram of PM10) that could be used as inputs into a full cost-benefit analysisof air pollution control strategies.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2785.
Date of creation: 28 Feb 2002
Date of revision:
Montreal Protocol; Public Health Promotion; Global Environment Facility; Air Quality&Clean Air; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Montreal Protocol; Air Quality&Clean Air; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Global Environment Facility; Transport and Environment;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Maureen L. Cropper & Nathalie B. Simon & Anna Alberini & Seema Arora & P.K. Sharma, 1997. "The Health Benefits of Air Pollution Control in Delhi," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1625-1629.
- Ostro, Bart D., 1987. "Air pollution and morbidity revisited: A specification test," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 87-98, March.
- Ostr, Bart & Sanchez, Jose Miguel & Aranda, Carlos & Eskeland, Gunnar S., 1995. "Air pollution and mortality : results from Santiago, Chile," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1453, The World Bank.
- Alva González, Miguel Ángel, 2008. "Environmentally Unfriendly Consumption Behaviour: Theoretical and Empirical Evidence from Private Motorists in Mexico City," MPRA Paper 18019, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.