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Rent-sharing in the multi-fibre arrangement : evidence from U.S. - Hong Kong trade in apparel


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  • Krishna, Kala
  • Ling Hui Tan


The Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) restricts the access of developing country exporters to developed country markets. It is usually assumed that the exporting countries receive all of the economic rents that result from these import restrictions - making it unclear whether the developing countries gain or lose as a result of the MFA. Recent theoretical work on trade policy under imperfect competition casts doubt on whether exporting countries receive all of the quota rents arising from voluntary export restraints such as those applied by the MFA. Drawing on this theoretical literature, Erzan, Krishna, and Tan (1991) tested and rejected the hypothesis that MFA quota rents on exports from Hong Kong to the United States accrued in full to the Hong Kong exporters. The results in this paper build on that hypothesis-testing analysis and assess its implications for the returns to Hong Kong producers. Their results suggest that rent sharing is an extremely important feature of the market for apparel exports from Hong Kong. U.S. importers were estimated to receive rents that were about 62 percent of the landed price of the imports. The authors conclude that the total potential rents arising from the MFA were split unevenly between the U.S. and Hong Kong - with the U.S. share ranging from 47 percent for skirts to 94 percent for playsuits. If the results of this study are corroborated for other developing countries, the implications of the MFA for developing countries are considerably worse than has typically been assumed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1003.

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Date of creation: 31 Oct 1992
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1003

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Keywords: Economic Theory&Research; Access to Markets; Markets and Market Access; Health Economics&Finance; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT;

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  1. Goto, Junichi, 1989. "The Multifibre Arrangement and Its Effects on Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 203-27, July.
  2. Faini, R. & Melo, J. de & Takacs, W., 1992. "A Primer on the MFA Maze," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 92.15, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
  3. Irene Trela & John Whalley, 1988. "Do Developing Countries Lose From the MFA?," NBER Working Papers 2618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. repec:fth:geneec:93.07 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Hamilton, Carl, 1986. "An Assessment of Voluntary Restraints on Hong Kong Exports to Europe and the USA," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 53(211), pages 339-50, August.
  6. Swan, Peter L, 1970. "Durability of Consumption Goods," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(5), pages 884-94, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Robert C. Feenstra, 1995. "Estimating the Effects of Trade Policy," NBER Working Papers 5051, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Jarvis, Lovell S., 2005. "The rise and decline of rent-seeking activity in the Brazilian coffee sector: Lessons from the imposition and removal of coffee export quotas," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 1881-1903, November.
  3. Bannister, Geoffrey J., 1993. "Rent-sharing in the multi-fibre arrangement : the case of Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1191, The World Bank.
  4. Jarvis, Lovell S., 2003. "How Brazil Transferred Billions To Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking And Export Tax Rebates," Working Papers 11967, University of California, Davis, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.


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