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Proximate, intermediate and ultimate causality: Theories and experiences of growth and development

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  • Szirmai, Adam

    ()
    (UNU-MERIT / MGSOG, Maastricht University)

Abstract

For a better understanding of development, we are interested in why in the long run some countries or societies forge ahead, while others stagnate or fall behind. We are especially interested in the conditions under which growth and catch- up can be realised in developing countries. In section 1 of this paper, we develop a framework of proximate, intermediate and ultimate sources of growth and development which serves to structure the analysis and measurement of economic development. Sections 2 to 6 offer a review of classical and modern theories of development and stagnation, in the context of the framework of proximate and ultimate causality developed in section 1. Special attention is paid to the interactions between institutions and growth in different theoretical traditions. Section 7 presents empirical time series on long-run economic trends in a sample of 31 developing countries representing 80 percent of the population of the developing world. These series focus on proximate causality and on socio-economic outcomes and highlight some of the key issues discussed in the theoretical overview in sections 2-6.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) in its series MERIT Working Papers with number 032.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2012032

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Keywords: Theories of Economic Development; Economic Growth; Proximate Causality; Intermediate Causality; Ultimate Causality;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bluhm, Richard & Szirmai, Adam, 2012. "Institutions and long-run growth performance: An analytic literature review of the institutional determinants of economic growth," MERIT Working Papers, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) 033, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  2. Mideros Mora, Andres & Gassmann, Franziska & Mohnen, Pierre, 2013. "Estimation of rates of return on social protection: Making the case for non-contributory social transfers in Cambodia," MERIT Working Papers, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) 063, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  3. repec:fsc:fspubl:13 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Wim Naudé & Adam Szirmai, 2013. "Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Development," Working Papers, Maastricht School of Management 2013/17, Maastricht School of Management.
  5. Cingolani, Luciana & Crombrugghe, Denis de, 2012. "Techniques for dealing with reverse causality between institutions and economic performance," MERIT Working Papers, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) 034, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).

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