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Institutional Change and Academic Patenting: French Universities and the Innovation Act of the 1999

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  • Antonio Della Malva
  • Francesco Lissoni
  • Patrick Llerena

Abstract

Recent empirical work in the field of university-industry technology transfer has stressed the importance of IPR-related reforms and university patenting has major forces behind the success of US high-tech industry. European policy-makers have been tempted to explain the poorer technological performance of their countries with the lower propensity of their academic institutions to get engaged in patenting and commercializing their research results. As a consequence, a number of measures have been taken to promote academic awareness of IPRs, as part of more comprehensive policies in favour of academic commercialization and entrepreneurship. This paper explores university patenting, and the related policies, in France. We provide evidence that university patenting in that countries has been underestimated by policy-makers’ perceptions: French academic scientists are in fact responsible for no less than 3% of patents by French inventors at the European Patent Office. However, only 10% of academic-invented patents are owned by domestic universities, with the remainder assigned both to firms and to Public Research Organizations (PROs). We then explore the impact of the Innovation Act, passed in France in 1999. We find that the Act has significantly increased the likelihood an academic patent to be assigned to a university rather than to a business company. We also find, that the opening of a technology transfer office in a university appears to have a stronger and more significant impact than the Act on the decision of universities to retain IPRs over their scientists’ discoveries.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg in its series Working Papers of BETA with number 2008-09.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ulp:sbbeta:2008-09

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References

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  1. Francesco Lissoni & Patrick Llerena & Maureen McKelvey & Bulat Sanditov, 2007. "Academic Patenting in Europe: New Evidence from the KEINS Database," KITeS Working Papers 202, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jun 2007.
  2. Francesco Lissoni, 2008. "Academic inventors as brokers: An exploratory analysis of the KEINS database," KITeS Working Papers 213, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jan 2008.
  3. Rosenberg, Nathan & Nelson, Richard R., 1994. "American universities and technical advance in industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 323-348, May.
  4. Zvi Griliches, 1991. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 3301, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Maryann Feldman & Pierre Desrochers, 2003. "Research Universities and Local Economic Development: Lessons from the History of the Johns Hopkins University," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 5-24.
  6. Francesco Lissoni & Bulat Sanditov & Gianluca Tarasconi, 2006. "The Keins Database on Academic Inventors: Methodology and Contents," KITeS Working Papers 181, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Sep 2006.
  7. repec:fth:harver:1473 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Sampat, Bhaven N. & Mowery, David C. & Ziedonis, Arvids A., 2003. "Changes in university patent quality after the Bayh-Dole act: a re-examination," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(9), pages 1371-1390, November.
  9. Feller, Irwin, 1990. "Universities as engines of R&D-based economic growth: They think they can," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 335-348, August.
  10. Geuna, Aldo & Nesta, Lionel J.J., 2006. "University patenting and its effects on academic research: The emerging European evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 790-807, July.
  11. Joaquín Azagra-Caro & Nicolas Carayol & Patrick Llerena, 2006. "Patent Production at a European Research University: Exploratory Evidence at the Laboratory Level," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 257-268, 03.
  12. Owen-Smith, Jason & Powell, Walter W, 2001. " To Patent or Not: Faculty Decisions and Institutional Success at Technology Transfer," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 99-114, January.
  13. David J. Teece, 2005. "Technology and Technology Transfer:Mansfieldian Inspirations and Subsequent Developments," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 30(2_2), pages 17-33, 01.
  14. Schmiemann, Manfred & Durvy, Jean-Noel, 2003. " New Approaches to Technology Transfer from Publicly Funded Research," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 9-15, January.
  15. Mowery, David C. & Ziedonis, Arvids A., 2002. "Academic patent quality and quantity before and after the Bayh-Dole act in the United States," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 399-418, March.
  16. Kortum, Samuel & Lerner, Josh, 1999. "What is behind the recent surge in patenting?1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 1-22, January.
  17. Richard Jensen & Marie Thursby, 1998. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Tale of University Licensing," NBER Working Papers 6698, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Geuna Aldo & Rossi Federica, 2010. "Changes to university IPR regulations in Europe and the impact on academic patenting," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 201015, University of Turin.
  2. repec:wip:wpaper:4 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Claudia Curi & Cinzia Daraio & Patrick Llerena, 2012. "University technology transfer: how (in)efficient are French universities?," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(3), pages 629-654.
  4. Francesco LISSONI (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113) & Michele PEZZONI (KITeS, University of Bocconi) & Bianca POTI (CERIS-CNR) & Sandra ROMAGNOSI (Parco Scientifico Università \"Tor Vergata\"), 2012. "University autonomy, IP legislation and academic patenting: Italy, 1996-2007," Cahiers du GREThA 2012-26, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.

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