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Getting a Sporting Chance: Title IX and the Intergenerational Transmission of Health

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  • Lisa Schulkind

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Trinity College)

Abstract

We know that healthier mothers tend to have healthier infants, but we do not know how much of that relationship reflects the intergenerational transmission of genetic attributes versus environmental influences. From a policy perspective, it is crucial to understand which environmental influences are important, and whether investments in one generation affect outcomes for the next. I use variation in the implementation of Title IX to measure the effects of increased athletic opportunities on the health of infants. Babies born to women with greater thletic opportunities as teenagers have babies that are healthier at birth. They are less likely to be born of low or very low birthweight, and have higher Apgar scores.

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File URL: http://internet2.trincoll.edu/repec/WorkingPapers2013/WP13-05.pdf
File Function: First version, 2013
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Trinity College, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1305.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:tri:wpaper:1305

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Phone: (860) 297 - 2485
Web page: http://www.trincoll.edu/Academics/MajorsAndMinors/Economics/Pages/default.aspx
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Keywords: Intergenerational Transmission; Infant Health; Title IX;

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  1. Betsey Stevenson, 2010. "Beyond the Classroom: Using Title IX to Measure the Return to High School Sports," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(2), pages 284-301, May.
  2. Janet Currie & Enrico Moretti, 2003. "Mother'S Education And The Intergenerational Transmission Of Human Capital: Evidence From College Openings," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1495-1532, November.
  3. Douglas Almond & Hilary W. Hoynes & Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, 2011. "Inside the War on Poverty: The Impact of Food Stamps on Birth Outcomes," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 387-403, May.
  4. Reyn van Ewijk, 2009. "Long-term health effects on the next generation of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 28597, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Justin McCrary & Heather Royer, 2006. "The Effect of Female Education on Fertility and Infant Health: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth," NBER Working Papers 12329, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Robert Kaestner & Xin Xu, 2010. "Title IX, Girls’ Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight," Evaluation Review, , vol. 34(1), pages 52-78, February.
  7. Robert Kaestner & Xin Xu, 2006. "Effects of Title IX and Sports Participation on Girls' Physical Activity and Weight," NBER Working Papers 12113, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Black, Sandra E. & Devereux, Paul J. & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2005. "From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 1864, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Jere R. Behrman & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2004. "Returns to Birthweight," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 586-601, May.
  10. Hoynes, Hilary & Page, Marianne & Stevens, Ann Huff, 2011. "Can targeted transfers improve birth outcomes?: Evidence from the introduction of the WIC program," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 813-827, August.
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