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Separation between ownership and control: where do we stand?

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  • Ariane Chapelle

Abstract

Complex structure of ownership like cross-ownership, rings, and pyramids are common in Continental Europe, Eastern Europe, and in Asia. This paper aims at dissecting these complex features by a proper measurement of direct and indirect holdings. Building on Brioschi et al. (1989), we use the input-output matrix methodology and we add control considerations in the matrix calculations to derive a straightforward method of quantifying the separation between ownership and control for a firm or a shareholder, named the “separation ratio”. After giving an overview of the full ownership structure of the listed Belgian companies, we present and apply our method to a database of more than 800 companies and individuals linked to the Belgian listed firms. Next, we replicate the approach with data from several European countries and the United States. These international comparisons allow evaluating the interactions between the economic environment of a country, and its corporate governance features.

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File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/9995/1/ac-0033.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series Working Papers CEB with number 04-018.RS.

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Length: 22 p.
Date of creation: Jun 2004
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published by: Université Libre de Bruxelles, Solvay Business School, Centre Emile Bernheim (CEB)
Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:04-018

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Keywords: Ownership structure – Pyramiding – Cross-ownership – Separation ratio.;

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References

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  1. Becht, M.C. & Chapelle, A. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 1999. "Shareholding Cascades: The Separation of Ownership and Control in Belgium," Discussion Paper 1999-96, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  2. Jensen, Michael C, 1993. " The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(3), pages 831-80, July.
  3. RAFAEL LaPORTA & FLORENCIO LOPEZ-de-SILANES & ANDREI SHLEIFER & ROBERT W. VISHNY, . "Legal Determinants of External Finance,"," CRSP working papers 324, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  4. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1768, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    • La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1998. "Law and Finance," Scholarly Articles 3451310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    • Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Law and Finance," Working Paper 19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
    • Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," NBER Working Papers 5661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Michael Ian Cragg & I.J. Alexander Dyck, 1999. "Management Control and Privatization in the United Kingdom," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(3), pages 475-497, Autumn.
  6. Brioschi, Francesco & Buzzacchi, Luigi & Colombo, Massimo G., 1989. "Risk capital financing and the separation of ownership and control in business groups," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 747-772, September.
  7. Renneboog, L.D.R., 1999. "Ownership, Managerial Control and the Governance of Companies Listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange," Discussion Paper 1999-63, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  8. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, 04.
  9. Ariane Chapelle & Marco Becht, 1997. "Ownership and control in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9979, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  10. Denis, David J. & Sarin, Atulya, 1999. "Ownership and board structures in publicly traded corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 187-223, May.
  11. Ariane Chapelle, 2000. "Corporate control in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9961, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  12. Franks, Julian & Mayer, Colin, 1996. "Hostile takeovers and the correction of managerial failure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 163-181, January.
  13. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
  14. Short, Helen, 1994. " Ownership, Control, Financial Structure and the Performance of Firms," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 203-49, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Corporate Governance and Firm Valuation in Colombia," IDB Publications 6732, Inter-American Development Bank.
  2. Gutierrez, Luis H. & Pombo, Carlos & Taborda, Rodrigo, 2008. "Ownership and control in Colombian corporations," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 22-47, February.
  3. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Valuación y gobierno corporativo: elementos de juicio de Colombia," Research Department Publications 3217, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  4. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo & Rodrigo Taborda, 2005. "Propiedad y control en empresas colombianas," Research Department Publications 3221, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  5. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Gestión empresarial y valuación de empresas en Colombia," Research Department Publications 4471, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  6. Luis H Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Corporate Valuation and Governance: Evidence from Colombia," BORRADORES DE INVESTIGACIÓN 002203, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  7. Irfah Najihah Basir Malan & Norhana Salamudin & Noryati Ahmad, 2013. "Determinants of Firm Affiliation to Pyramid Structure: A Survey from Malaysian Public Listed Firms," Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 3(6), pages 549-569, June.

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