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Ownership and control: dissecting the pyramid

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  • Ariane Chapelle
  • Ariane Szafarz

Abstract

Pyramids, cross-ownership, rings and other complex features are frequent in the European and Japanese industrial world. The dissection of these structures requires a proper measurement of indirect shareholdings. While some authors use the (generally overestimated) data coming from legal ownership declarations, Ellerman (1991) and Flath (1992), Baldone et al. (1997) use the input-output matrix technology applied to raw ownership data. This paper goes a step further by adding control considerations based on the majority voting rule. The analysis moves from integrated ownership towards integrated control (including chain effects), then defines a control ratio for ultimate shareholders of any firm. The methodology is illustrated on Albert Frère's pyramidal empire. By offering a way to evaluate control leverages, this paper provides a useful tool for empirical research in corporate governance.

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File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/10001/1/ac-0036.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series Working Papers CEB with number 03-002.RS.

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Length: 22 p.
Date of creation: Dec 2002
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published by: Université Libre de Bruxelles, Solvay Business School, Centre Emile Bernheim (CEB)
Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:03-002

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Related research

Keywords: Integrated ownership; Corporate control; Corporate governance.;

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References

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  1. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
  2. Flath, David, 1992. "Indirect shareholding within Japan's business groups," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 223-227, February.
  3. Michael C. Jensen, 1994. "The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, And The Failure Of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 6(4), pages 4-23.
  4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," NBER Working Papers 6625, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. " A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-83, June.
  6. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Corporate Valuation and Governance: Evidence from Colombia," Research Department Publications 3216, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  2. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo & Rodrigo Taborda, 2005. "Propiedad y control en empresas colombianas," Research Department Publications 3221, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  3. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo & Rodrigo Taborda, 2005. "Ownership and Control in Colombian Corporations," Research Department Publications 3220, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  4. T. Biebuyck & Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2002. "Les leviers de contrôle des actionnaires majoritaires," Working Papers CEB 03-001.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  5. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Gestión empresarial y valuación de empresas en Colombia," Research Department Publications 4471, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  6. Sabri Boubaker & Florence Labégorre, 2008. "Le recours aux leviers de contrôle:le cas des sociétés cotées françaises," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 11(3), pages 95-124, September.
  7. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Corporate Governance and Firm Valuation in Colombia," Research Department Publications 4470, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  8. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Valuación y gobierno corporativo: elementos de juicio de Colombia," Research Department Publications 3217, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

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