The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture
AbstractThis paper provides estimates of the costs of organic agriculture (OA) programs, and sets them in the context of the costs of attaining the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It analyzes the costs of OA programs in four case studies: Wanzai, PRC; Wuyuan, PRC; Kandy, Sri Lanka; and Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The results show considerable variation across the case studies, suggesting that there is no clear structure to the costs of adopting OA. Costs do depend on the efficiency with which the OA adoption programs are run. The lowest cost programs were more than ten times less expensive than the highest cost ones. A further analysis of the gains resulting from OA adoption reveals that the costs per person taken out of poverty was much lower than the World Bank's estimates, based on income growth in general or based on the detailed costs of meeting some of the more quantifiable MDGs (e.g., education, health, and environment).
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Asian Development Bank Institute in its series ADBI Working Papers with number 193.
Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: 09 Feb 2010
Date of revision:
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organic agriculture un mdg; millennium development goals organic; organic agriculture asia mdg;
Other versions of this item:
- Anil Markandya & Sununtar Setboonsarng & Qiao Yu Hui & Rachanee Songkranok & Adam Stefan, 2010. "The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture," Development Economics Working Papers 23015, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
- Anil Markandya & Sununtar Setboonsarng & Qiao Yu Hui & Adam Stefan, 2011. "The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture," Working Papers id:4395, eSocialSciences.
- Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
- Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
- Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGR-2010-03-13 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2010-03-13 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENV-2010-03-13 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-SEA-2010-03-13 (South East Asia)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- World Bank & International Monetary Fund, 2008. "Global Monitoring Report 2008 : MDGs and the Environment, Agenda for Inclusive and Sustainable Development," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6518, March.
- Devarajan, Shantayanan & Miller, Margaret J. & Swanson, Eric V., 2002. "Goals for development : history, prospects and costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2819, The World Bank.
- Bourguignon, Francois & Diaz-Bonilla, Carolina & Lofgren, Hans, 2008. "Aid, service delivery, and the millennium development goals in an economy-wide framework," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4683, The World Bank.
- R. Quentin Grafton, 2007. "Economic Development & Environmental Sustainability: New Policy Options - Edited by Ramón López and Michael A. Toman," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(262), pages 347-349, 09.
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