Linkages Between Income, Education And Health: Case Of Rural Orissa
AbstractThe study examines the effect of income and education of the household on its health expenditure, based on primary data collected from Jajpur district of Orissa. Multi-stage random sampling method is adopted to select households (HHs), i.e., sampling unit. The descriptive statistics shows that per capita income and per capita health expenditure are Rs.9, 820.02 and Rs.870.10 respectively per annum. The mean education is 0.94. In rural Orissa, an average person spends around nine per cent of his/her income on health expenditure from his own pocket. To find out the impact of income and education on health expenditure, a linear regression model is fitted as PHE = 70.001 + 0.62PHI + 0.03EDN with R2 value 0.39 which indicates that, a rupee increase income brings about 62 Paise increase health expenditure of a person and an educated person on an average spends three paise more in a rupee than the uneducated person on health expenditure in rural area. This shows that income has greater positive effect on health expenditure than education. To improve the health status of the people, extreme poverty and hunger should be eradicated which is the first goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The health planners and administrators should be involved in the planning process of the government to reduce poverty and adopt policies for more equitable distribution of income. They can also recommend to have a specific health tax (an earmarked or so-called hypothecated tax) devoted to health care. Again spending more on health services does not necessarily buy better health. It needs an efficient management and use of resources. The principle of equality for opportunity for access to services on the basis of need and equal risk, irrespective of ability to pay should be followed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 6519.
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Income; Education and Health; Health Tax;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis
- C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
- I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Knowles, Stephen & Owen, P Dorian, 1997. "Education and Health in an Effective-Labour Empirical Growth Model," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 73(223), pages 314-28, December.
- Gupta, Indrani & Dasgupta, Puranmita, 2002. "Demand for Curative Health Care in Rural India: Choosing between Private, Public and No Care," Working Papers 82, National Council of Applied Economic Research.
- John Strauss & Duncan Thomas, 1998.
"Health, Nutrition, and Economic Development,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 36(2), pages 766-817, June.
- Fogel, Robert William, 1993. "New findings on secular trends in nutrition and mortality: Some implications for population theory," Handbook of Population and Family Economics, in: M. R. Rosenzweig & Stark, O. (ed.), Handbook of Population and Family Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 9, pages 433-481 Elsevier.
- Berhman, J.R., 1990. "The action of human resources and poverty on one another: what we have yet to learn," Papers 74, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- Barrera, Albino, 1990. "The interactive effects of mother's scholling and unsupplemented breastfeeding on child health," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 81-98, November.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.