Goals for development : history, prospects and costs
AbstractThe Millennium Development Goals set quantitative targets for poverty reduction and improvements in health, education, gender equality, the environment, and other aspects of human welfare. At existing rates of progress many countries will fall short of these goals. However, if developing countries take steps to improve their policies and increased financial resources are made available, significant additional progress toward the goals is possible. The suthors provide a preliminary estimate of the additional financial resources which would be required if countries would work vigorously toward meeting the Millennium Development Goals. Two estimates of the resource gap are developed, one by estimating the additional resources necessary to increase economic growth so as to reduce income poverty, the other by estimating the cost of meeting specific goals in health, education, and the environment. Both estimates yield a figure in the range of $40-$70 billion in additional assistance per year, which is in line with estimates from other international development agencies and which would roughly represent a doubling of official aid flows over 2000 levels. While the authors believe this is a reasonable first approximation of the costs associated with achieving the Millennium Development Goals, it should be interpreted with caution for several reasons, including the lack of empirical data in many countries to estimate the relationship between expenditures on health or education and related outcomes, or the relationship between investment and growth, the sensitivity of the results to changes in the policy environment (both at the macroeconomic and sector level, and with respect to international trade), and opportunities for increased-and more efficient-domestic resource mobilization.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2819.
Date of creation: 30 Apr 2002
Date of revision:
Early Child and Children's Health; Public Health Promotion; Decentralization; Health Economics&Finance; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Poverty Assessment; Health Economics&Finance; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Early Child and Children's Health; Earth Sciences&GIS;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Easterly, William, 1999. "The ghost of financing gap: testing the growth model used in the international financial institutions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 423-438, December.
- Collier, Paul & Dollar, David, 2001.
"Can the World Cut Poverty in Half? How Policy Reform and Effective Aid Can Meet International Development Goals,"
Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 1787-1802, November.
- Collier, Paul & Dollar, David, 2000. "Can the world cut poverty in half ? how policy reform and effective aid can meet international development goals," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2403, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin, 2001.
"Measuring aggregate welfare in developing countries - How well do national accounts and surveys agree?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2665, The World Bank.
- Martin Ravallion, 2003. "Measuring Aggregate Welfare in Developing Countries: How Well Do National Accounts and Surveys Agree?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(3), pages 645-652, August.
- Bidani, Benu & Ravallion, Martin, 1997.
"Decomposing social indicators using distributional data,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 125-139, March.
- Bidani, Benu & Ravallion, Martin, 1995. "Decomposing social indicators using distributional data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1487, The World Bank.
- Filmer, Deon & Hammer, Jeffrey S & Pritchett, Lant H, 2000. "Weak Links in the Chain: A Diagnosis of Health Policy in Poor Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 15(2), pages 199-224, August.
- Hansen, Henrik & Tarp, Finn, 2001. "Aid and growth regressions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 547-570, April.
- Burnside, Craig & Dollar, David, 1997.
"Aid, policies, and growth,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1777, The World Bank.
- Lawrence Haddad & Harold Alderman & Simon Appleton & Lina Song & Yisehac Yohannes, 2003. "Reducing Child Malnutrition: How Far Does Income Growth Take Us?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(1), pages 107-131, June.
- Datt, Gaurav, 1998. "Computational tools for poverty measurement and analysis," FCND discussion papers 50, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Michael Clemens, 2004.
"The Long Walk to School: International Education Goals in Historical Perspective,"
37, Center for Global Development.
- Michael A. Clemens, 2004. "The Long Walk to School: International education goals in historical perspective," Development and Comp Systems 0403007, EconWPA.
- Clemens, Michael A. & Kenny, Charles J. & Moss, Todd J., 2007.
"The Trouble with the MDGs: Confronting Expectations of Aid and Development Success,"
Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 735-751, May.
- Michael A. Clemens & Charles J. Kenny & Todd J. Moss, 2004. "The Trouble with the MDGs: Confronting Expectations of Aid and Development Success," Working Papers 40, Center for Global Development.
- Michael Clemens & Charles Kenny & Todd Moss, 2004. "The Trouble with the MDGs: Confronting Expectations of Aid and Development Success," Development and Comp Systems 0405011, EconWPA.
- Dalgaard, Carl-Johan & Erickson, Lennart, 2009.
"Reasonable Expectations and the First Millennium Development Goal: How Much Can Aid Achieve?,"
Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 1170-1181, July.
- Carl-Johan Dalgaard & Lennart Erickson, 2007. "Reasonable Expectations and the First Millennium Development Goal: How Much Can Aid Achieve?," Discussion Papers 07-18, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
- Renate Schubert & Julia Blasch & Kristin Hoffmann, 2007. "Environmental Protection, Energy Policy and Poverty Reduction – Synergies of an Integrated Approach," IED Working paper 07-01, IED Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich.
- Caren A. Grown & Chandrika Bahadur & Jessie Handbury & Diane Elson, 2006. "The Financial Requirements of Achieving Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_467, Levy Economics Institute, The.
- Anil Markandya & Sununtar Setboonsarng & Qiao Yu Hui & Rachanee Songkranok & Adam Stefan, 2010.
"The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture,"
Development Economics Working Papers
23015, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
- Markandya, Anil & Setboonsarng, Sununtar & Hui, Qiao Yu & Songkranok, Rachanee & Stefan, Adam, 2010. "The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture," ADBI Working Papers 193, Asian Development Bank Institute.
- Anil Markandya & Sununtar Setboonsarng & Qiao Yu Hui & Adam Stefan, 2011. "The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture," Working Papers id:4395, eSocialSciences.
- World Bank, 2005. "Ethiopia : Well-Being and Poverty in Ethiopia, The Role of Agriculture and Agency," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8707, The World Bank.
- Osakwe, Patrick N. & Ben Hammouda, Hakim, 2006. "Financing Development in Africa: Trends, Issues and Challenges," MPRA Paper 1815, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Barbara Bruns & Alain Mingat & Ramahatra Rakotomalala, 2003. "Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015 : A Chance for Every Child," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15121.
- Fan, Shenggen & Johnson, Michael & Saurkar, Anuja & Makombe, Tsitsi, 2008. "Investing in African agriculture to halve poverty by 2015:," IFPRI discussion papers 751, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2011. "Halving poverty in HIPC countries by 2015: How costly if achievable?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 213-225, March.
- Baulch, Bob, 2006. "Aid distribution and the MDGs," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 933-950, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.