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Commodity Prices: Cyclical Weakness or Secular Decline?

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  • Reinhart, Carmen
  • Wickham, Peter

Abstract

Primary commodities still account for the bulk of exports in many developing countries. However, real commodity prices have been declining almost continuously since the early 1980s. The appropriate policy response to a terms of trade shock depends importantly on whether the shock is perceived to be temporary or permanent. Our results indicate that the recent weakness in commodity prices is mostly secular, stressing the need for commodity exporting countries to concentrate on export diversification and other structural policies. There is, however, scope for stabilization funds and the use of hedging strategies, since the evidence also suggests commodity prices have become more volatile.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 8173.

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Date of creation: 1994
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Publication status: Published in IMF Staff Papers 2.41(1994): pp. 175-213
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:8173

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  1. Eduardo Borensztein & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1994. "The Macroeconomic Determinants of Commodity Prices," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 41(2), pages 236-261, June.
  2. Atish R. Ghosh & Jonathan David Ostry, 1994. "Export Instability and the External Balance in Developing Countries," IMF Working Papers 94/8, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Harvey, A C, 1985. "Trends and Cycles in Macroeconomic Time Series," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 3(3), pages 216-27, June.
  4. Jonathan D. Ostry & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1992. "Private Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks: Evidence from Developing Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 495-517, September.
  5. Cochrane, John H, 1988. "How Big Is the Random Walk in GNP?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(5), pages 893-920, October.
  6. Deaton, A.S., 1992. "Commodity Prices, Stabilization, and Growth in Africa," Papers 166, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  7. Powell, Andrew, 1991. "Commodity and Developing Country Terms of Trade: What Does the Long Run Show?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1485-96, November.
  8. John Y. Campbell & Pierre Perron, 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots," NBER Technical Working Papers 0100, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Mussa, Michael, 1986. "Nominal exchange rate regimes and the behavior of real exchange rates: Evidence and implications," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 117-214, January.
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  11. Paxson, C.H., 1991. "Consumption And Income Seasonality In Thailand," Papers 150, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  12. Reinhart, Carmen & Ostry, Jonathan, 1992. "Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks: Evidence from Developing Countries," MPRA Paper 6976, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Perron, P, 1988. "The Great Crash, The Oil Price Shock And The Unit Root Hypothesis," Papers 338, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
  14. James M. Boughton, 1991. "Commodity and Manufactures Prices in the Long Run," IMF Working Papers 91/47, International Monetary Fund.
  15. Cuddington, John T., 1992. "Long-run trends in 26 primary commodity prices : A disaggregated look at the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 207-227, October.
  16. Guilkey, David K. & Schmidt, Peter, 1989. "Extended tabulations for Dickey-Fuller tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 355-357, December.
  17. Grilli, Enzo R & Yang, Maw Cheng, 1988. "Primary Commodity Prices, Manufactured Goods Prices, and the Terms of Trade of Developing Countries: What the Long Run Shows," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(1), pages 1-47, January.
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