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Why are women in the Caribbean so much more likely than men to be unemployed?

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  • Seguino, Stephanie

Abstract

Caribbean women are more likely than men to be unemployed, as evidenced by the economies studied here—Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. This paper uses aggregate data to explore macroeconomic factors that contribute to gender differentials in unemployment. National economic conditions and job segregation explain a portion of gender differences in unemployment, with men more likely to find employment during an economic upturn. Even within job categories, though, women’s unemployment rates are higher than men’s, suggesting employment discrimination. The results imply that economic growth is not sufficient to ensure equitable job access, and more targeted efforts are therefore necessary to ensure gender equity.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 6507.

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Date of creation: Dec 2003
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:6507

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Keywords: Gender; unemployment; growth and development; Caribbean; inequality;

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References

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  1. Standing, Guy, 1989. "Global feminization through flexible labor," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 1077-1095, July.
  2. Rosario Sánchez Pérez & María Luisa Moltó Carbonell & Nieves Lázaro, 1995. "Unemployment Determinantes For Women In Spain," Working Papers. Serie EC, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie) 1995-15, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  3. Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 2000. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," CID Working Papers, Center for International Development at Harvard University 42, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
  4. R. N. Olsen & A. Coppin, 2001. "The Determinants of Gender Differences in Income in Trinidad and Tobago," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(5), pages 31-56.
  5. Addington Coppin, 1996. "Male and female earnings in the Caribbean economy of Barbados: A human capital perspective," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 61-75, December.
  6. William A. Darity & Patrick L. Mason, 1998. "Evidence on Discrimination in Employment: Codes of Color, Codes of Gender," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 63-90, Spring.
  7. Cagatay, Nilufer & Ozler, Sule, 1995. "Feminization of the labor force: The effects of long-term development and structural adjustment," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1883-1894, November.
  8. Gunseli Berik, 2000. "Mature Export-Led Growth and Gender Wage Inequality in Taiwan," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 1-26.
  9. Ghazala Azmat & Maia Guell & Alan Manning, 2004. "Gender gaps in unemployment rates in OECD countries," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library 19995, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  10. Massiah, Joycelin, 1989. "Women's lives and livelihoods: A view from the Commonwealth Caribbean," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 965-977, July.
  11. Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
  12. Shelly Lundberg & Robert A. Pollak, 1996. "Bargaining and Distribution in Marriage," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 10(4), pages 139-158, Fall.
  13. Miles, Rebecca, 2002. "Employment and Unemployment in Jordan: The Importance of the Gender System," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 413-427, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Reddock, Rhoda & Bobb-Smith, Yvonne, 2008. "Reconciling work and family : issues and policies in Trinidad and Tobago," ILO Working Papers, International Labour Organization 411249, International Labour Organization.
  2. Stephanie Seguino & Caren Grown, 2006. "Gender equity and globalization: macroeconomic policy for developing countries," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(8), pages 1081-1104.
  3. Riadh Ben Jelili, . "The Arab Region's Unemployment Problem Revisited," API-Working Paper Series 1015, Arab Planning Institute - Kuwait, Information Center.
  4. Stephanie Seguino & Caren A. Grown, 2006. "Feminist-Kaleckian Macroeconomic Policy for Developing Countries," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_446, Levy Economics Institute.

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