Gender Discrimination in Hiring: Evidence from 19,130 Resumes in China
AbstractWe study gender discrimination in hiring markets by sending 19,130 fictitious matched resumes in response to professional employment advertisements posted on major Internet employment boards in China for positions such as engineers, accountants, secretaries, and marketing professionals in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Wuhan, and Chengdu. Our results show that, in general, state-owned firms tend to prefer male applicants. Foreign and private firms tend to prefer female applicants. On one hand, this evidence supports the hypothesis that economic reform and the market economy may mitigate gender discrimination. On the other hand, this evidence is consistent with statistics that describe discrimination based on gender segregation and information asymmetry that originated with higher ratios of female workers in foreign and private firms. With respect to regional income disparity, we find that the differences in gender discrimination between first- and second-tier cities are not significant. This result indicates that economic reform exerts limited mitigation effect on discrimination. We also find no evidence of taste discrimination based on traditional son preference in China.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 43543.
Date of creation: 03 Jan 2013
Date of revision:
Discrimination; Audit Study; Gender; Employment;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-01-12 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2013-01-12 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-DEV-2013-01-12 (Development)
- NEP-HME-2013-01-12 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-LAB-2013-01-12 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2013-01-12 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
- NEP-TRA-2013-01-12 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jennifer Hunt, 2002.
"The Transition in East Germany: When Is a Ten-Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 148-169, January.
- Jennifer Hunt, 1997. "The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," NBER Working Papers 6167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jennifer Hunt, 1997. "The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 156, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Hunt, Jennifer, 1998. "The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1805, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- repec:feb:natura:0058 is not listed on IDEAS
- Riach, Peter A & Rich, Judith, 1987. "Testing for Sexual Discrimination in the Labour Market," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(49), pages 165-78, December.
- Alison Booth & Andrew Leigh, 2010.
"Do Employers Discriminate by Gender? A Field Experiment in Female-Dominated Occupations,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
632, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Booth, Alison & Leigh, Andrew, 2010. "Do employers discriminate by gender? A field experiment in female-dominated occupations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 236-238, May.
- Alison Booth & Andrew Leigh, 2010. "Do employers discriminate by gender? A field experiment in female-dominated occupations," Natural Field Experiments 00200, The Field Experiments Website.
- Booth, Alison L. & Leigh, Andrew, 2010. "Do Employers Discriminate by Gender? A Field Experiment in Female-Dominated Occupations," IZA Discussion Papers 4690, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Booth, Alison L. & Leigh, Andrew, 2010. "Do Employers Discriminate by Gender? A Field Experiment in Female-Dominated Occupations," CEPR Discussion Papers 7638, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Björn Gustafsson & Shi Li, 2000. "Economic transformation and the gender earnings gap in urban China," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 305-329.
- Jolliffe, Dean & Campos, Nauro F., 2005.
"Does market liberalisation reduce gender discrimination? Econometric evidence from Hungary, 1986-1998,"
Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-22, February.
- Dean Jolliffe & Nauro F. Campos, 2004. "Does Market Liberalisation Reduce Gender Discrimination? Econometric Evidence from Hungary, 1986—1998," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-678, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2003.
"Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination,"
NBER Working Papers
9873, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 991-1013, September.
- Ying Chu Ng, 2007. "Gender Earnings Differentials And Regional Economic Development In Urban China, 1988-97," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(1), pages 148-166, 03.
- Kuhn, Peter J. & Shen, Kailing, 2010.
"Gender Discrimination in Job Ads: Theory and Evidence,"
IZA Discussion Papers
5195, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Peter Kuhn & Kailing Shen, 2010. "Gender Discrimination in Job Ads: Theory and Evidence," Working Papers id:2915, eSocialSciences.
- Peter J. Kuhn & Kailing Shen, 2011. "Gender Discrimination in Job Ads: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 17453, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- P. A. Riach & J. Rich, 2002. "Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(483), pages 480-518, November.
- Xin Meng & Junsen Zhang & Pak-Wai Liu, 2000. "Sectoral gender wage differentials and discrimination in the transitional Chinese economy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 331-352.
- Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226041162, June.
- Campos, Nauro F & Jolliffe, Dean, 2004. "Does Market Liberalization Reduce Gender Discrimination? Econometric Evidence from Hungary, 1986-98," CEPR Discussion Papers 4350, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Dollar, David & Fisman, Raymond & Gatti, Roberta, 2001. "Are women really the "fairer" sex? Corruption and women in government," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 423-429, December.
- Eckel, Catherine C & Grossman, Philip J, 1998. "Are Women Less Selfish Than Men? Evidence from Dictator Experiments," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 726-35, May.
- Uri Gneezy & John List & Michael K. Price, 2012. "Toward an Understanding of Why People Discriminate: Evidence from a Series of Natural Field Experiments," NBER Working Papers 17855, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Neumark & Roy J. Bank & Kyle D. Van Nort, 1995.
"Sex Discrimination in Restaurant Hiring: An Audit Study,"
NBER Working Papers
5024, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neumark, David, 1996. "Sex Discrimination in Restaurant Hiring: An Audit Study," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(3), pages 915-41, August.
- Riach Peter A & Rich Judith, 2006. "An Experimental Investigation of Sexual Discrimination in Hiring in the English Labor Market," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(2), pages 1-22, January.
- Terra G. McKinnish, 2007. "Sexually Integrated Workplaces and Divorce: Another Form of On-the-Job Search," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(2).
- James J. Heckman, 1998. "Detecting Discrimination," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 101-116, Spring.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- Gender discrimination on the labor market in China
by Economic Logician in Economic Logic on 2013-02-01 15:02:00
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.