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The long-run behavior of the S&P Composite Price Index and its risk premium

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  • Cohen, Ruben D

Abstract

We lay out here the basis for a long-term equity index model, with intent to extract the risk premium. This is done by first observing the behaviours of the S&P Composite price index, earnings and dividends over roughly 130 years of history, from 1871 to 1998, and then assessing whether they fit within an equilibrium and efficient-market framework. The notions of equilibrium and efficiency shall be defined and formalised here, as they relate to this work, using classical finance theory. The conclusions derived so far are twofold. First, there is a transition in the market’s behaviour at around 1945. It appears that prior to this, the dividend payment policy was, on aggregate, one of constant dividend yield. After this, the policy’s focus seems to have shifted towards achieving market equilibrium and efficiency. Second, the backward-looking risk premium during the post-transition period is found, in theory, to be simply the negative percent rate of change in dividend yield. Moreover, under the special-case scenario where the equity price is discounted at a constant “infinitehorizon” discount rate, the forward-looking risk premium becomes identically the dividend yield.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 3192.

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Date of creation: Apr 2000
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:3192

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Related research

Keywords: equity risk premium; S&P Composite Price Index; dividends; Gordon growth model;

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  1. S. Grossman & R. Shiller, . "The Determinants of the Variability of Stock Market Price," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 18-80, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  2. Kleidon, Allan W, 1986. "Variance Bounds Tests and Stock Price Valuation Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 953-1001, October.
  3. Jose M. Campa & P. H. Kevin Chang, 1997. "The Forecasting Ability of Correlations Implied in Foreign Exchange Options," NBER Working Papers 5974, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Finucane, Thomas J., 1991. "Put-Call Parity and Expected Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(04), pages 445-457, December.
  5. Breeden, Douglas T & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1978. "Prices of State-contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 621-51, October.
  6. Robert J. Shiller, 1980. "Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends?," NBER Working Papers 0456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Campa, Jose M. & Chang, P. H. Kevin & Reider, Robert L., 1998. "Implied exchange rate distributions: evidence from OTC option markets1," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 117-160, February.
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