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Hedging vs. speculative pressures on commodity futures returns

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  • Cifarelli, Giulio
  • Paladino, Giovanna

Abstract

This study introduces a non linear model for commodity futures prices which accounts for pressures due to hedging and speculative activities. The linkage with the corresponding spot market is considered assuming that a long term equilibrium relationship holds between futures and spot pricing. Over the 1990-2010 time period, a dynamic interaction between spot and futures returns in five commodity markets (copper, cotton, oil, silver, and soybeans) is empirically validated. An error correction relationship for the cash returns and a non linear parameterization of the corresponding futures returns are combined with a bivariate CCC-GARCH representation of the conditional variances. Hedgers and speculators are contemporaneously at work in the futures markets, the role of the latter being far from negligible. In order to capture the consequences of the growing impact of financial flows on commodity market pricing, a two-state regime switching model for futures returns is developed. The empirical findings indicate that hedging and speculative behavior change across the two regimes, which we associate with low and high return volatility, according to a distinctive pattern, which is not homogeneous across commodities.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 28229.

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Date of creation: 10 Jan 2011
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:28229

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Related research

Keywords: Commodity spot and futures markets; dynamic hedging; speculation; non linear GARCH; Markov regime switching;

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References

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  1. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 1992. "Systematic Risk, Hedging Pressure, and Risk Premiums in Futures Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(4), pages 637-67.
  2. Ederington, Louis H, 1979. "The Hedging Performance of the New Futures Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 157-70, March.
  3. Fagan, Stephen & Gencay, Ramazan, 2008. "Liquidity-Induced Dynamics in Futures Markets," MPRA Paper 6677, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Figlewski, Stephen, 1984. " Hedging Performance and Basis Risk in Stock Index Futures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 657-69, July.
  5. Kroner, Kenneth F. & Sultan, Jahangir, 1993. "Time-Varying Distributions and Dynamic Hedging with Foreign Currency Futures," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(04), pages 535-551, December.
  6. C. John McDermott & Alasdair Scott & Paul Cashin, 1999. "The Myth of Comoving Commodity Prices," IMF Working Papers 99/169, International Monetary Fund.
  7. Manolis Kavussanos & Ilias Visvikis, 2008. "Hedging effectiveness of the Athens stock index futures contracts," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 243-270.
  8. Donald Lien & Yiu Kuen Tse, 2000. "Hedging downside risk with futures contracts," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 163-170.
  9. Benninga, Simon & Eldor, Rafael & Zilcha, Itzhak, 1983. "Optimal hedging in the futures market under price uncertainty," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 13(2-3), pages 141-145.
  10. Cecchetti, Stephen G & Cumby, Robert E & Figlewski, Stephen, 1988. "Estimation of the Optimal Futures Hedge," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(4), pages 623-30, November.
  11. Lence, Sergio H., 1995. "The Economic Value of Minimum-Variance Hedges," Staff General Research Papers 5053, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  12. Isabel Figuerola-Ferretti & Jesus Gonzalo, 2007. "Modelling and measuring price discovery in commodity markets," Business Economics Working Papers wb074510, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
  13. Chang, Eric C, 1985. " Returns to Speculators and the Theory of Normal Backwardation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 193-208, March.
  14. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Nomikos, Nikos K. & Pouliasis, Panos K., 2008. "A Markov regime switching approach for hedging energy commodities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1970-1983, September.
  15. Garbade, Kenneth D & Silber, William L, 1983. "Price Movements and Price Discovery in Futures and Cash Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(2), pages 289-97, May.
  16. Lescaroux, François, 2009. "On the excess co-movement of commodity prices--A note about the role of fundamental factors in short-run dynamics," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3906-3913, October.
  17. René M. Stulz, 1996. "Rethinking Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(3), pages 8-25.
  18. Baillie, Richard T & Myers, Robert J, 1991. "Bivariate GARCH Estimation of the Optimal Commodity Futures Hedge," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(2), pages 109-24, April-Jun.
  19. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-84, March.
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