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Human Capital, Exports, and Wages

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  • Marcel Fafchamps

Abstract

This paper tests whether manufacturing exports pay more to educated workers in an effort to ascertain whether the productivity of human capital is raised by exports. Using a panel of matched employer-employee data from Morocco, we fail to find convincing evidence that exporters pay more to educated workers. Although exporters pay more on average, much of the wage differential can be explained by the fact that exporters have a larger workforce and more capital. We also find that the wages of educated workers do not increase faster among exporters. Finally, educated workers who start working for an exporter do not experience a larger wage increase relative to their previous job. We discuss why our results differ from the literature.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number GPRG-WPS-069.

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Date of creation: 01 Mar 2007
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Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:gprg-wps-069

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Keywords: International Trade; Wage Earnings; Manufacturing; Morocco;

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  1. Bernard, A.B. & Jensen, J.B., 1994. "Exporters, Skill Upgrading, and the Wage Gap," Working papers, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics 94-30, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  2. Orazio Attanasio & Pinelopi Goldberg & Nina Pavcnik, 2003. "Trade Reforms and Wage Inequiality in Colombia," NBER Working Papers 9830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Robert E. Baldwin, 1991. "Are Economists' Traditional Trade Policy Views Still Valid?," NBER Working Papers 3793, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Eric A. Verhoogen, 2008. "Trade, Quality Upgrading, and Wage Inequality in the Mexican Manufacturing Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 123(2), pages 489-530, 05.
  5. Marcel Fafchamps & Måns Söderbom, 2004. "Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing," Development and Comp Systems 0409043, EconWPA.
  6. Sofronis Clerides & Saul Lach & James Tybout, 1996. "Is "learning-by-exporting" important? Micro-dynamic evidence from Colombia, Mexico and Morocco," Finance and Economics Discussion Series, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 96-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. James Tybout, 1998. "Manufacturing Firms In Developing Countries: How Well Do They Do, And Why?," Development and Comp Systems 9805004, EconWPA.
  8. Nina Pavcnik & Andreas Blom & Pinelopi Goldberg & Norbert Schady, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Industry Wage Structure: Evidence from Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 18(3), pages 319-344.
  9. Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Gonzaga, Gustavo & Menezes Filho, Naercio & Terra, Cristina, 2006. "Trade liberalization and the evolution of skill earnings differentials in Brazil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 345-367, March.
  11. Paolo Epifani & Gino Gancia, 2004. "The Skill Bias of World Trade," Working Papers 184, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  12. Mans Soderbom & Francis Teal, 2000. "Skills, investment and exports from manufacturing firms in Africa," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-08, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  13. Robbins, Donald & Gindling, T H, 1999. "Trade Liberalization and the Relative Wages for More-Skilled Workers in Costa Rica," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 140-54, June.
  14. Denny, Kevin & Harmon, Colm & Lydon, Raemonn, 2002. "Cross Country Evidence on the Returns to Education: Patterns and Explanations," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 3199, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Francis Teal & Måns Söderbom & Francis Teal, 2000. "Skills, investment and exports from manufacturing firms in Africa," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-08, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  16. Mankiw, N Gregory & Romer, David & Weil, David N, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-37, May.
  17. Currie, Janet & Harrison, Ann E, 1997. "Sharing the Costs: The Impact of Trade Reform on Capital and Labor in Morocco," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages S44-71, July.
  18. Marcel Fafchamps & Måns Söderbom & Najy Benhassine, 2006. "Job Sorting in African Labor Markets," CSAE Working Paper Series 2006-02, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  19. Daron Acemoglu, 2003. "Patterns of Skill Premia," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 199-230, 04.
  20. Wood, Adrian & Mayer, Jorg, 2001. "Africa's Export Structure in a Comparative Perspective," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 369-94, May.
  21. Johnson, George & Stafford, Frank, 1999. "The labor market implications of international trade," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 2215-2288 Elsevier.
  22. Catia Batista, 2007. "Joining the EU: Capital Flows, Migration and Wages," Economics Series Working Papers 342, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
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