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Weighting Waiting: Evaluating the Perception of In-Vehicle Travel Time Under Moving and Stopped Conditions


Author Info

  • David Levinson

    (Nexus (Networks, Economics, and Urban Systems) Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota)

  • Kathleen Harder
  • John Bloomfield

    (College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of Minnesota)

  • Kasia Winiarczyk


This paper describes experiments comparing traditional computer administered stated preference with virtual experience stated preference to ascertain how people value stopped delay compared with stop-and- go or freeflow traffic. The virtual experience stated preference experiments were conducted using a wrap around driving simulator. The two methods produced two different results, with the traditional computer assisted stated preference suggesting that ramp delay is 1.6 Ð 1.7 times more onerous than freeway time, while the driving simulator based virtual experience stated preference suggested that freeway delay is more onerous than ramp delay. Several reasons are hypothesized to explain the differences, including recency, simultaneous versus sequential comparison, awareness of public opinion, the intensity of the stop-and-go traffic, and the fact that driving in the real-world is a goal directed activity. However without further research, which, if any, of these will eventually prove to be the reason is unclear. What is clear is that a comparison of the computer administered stated preference with virtual experience stated preference produces different results, even though both procedures strive to find the same answers in nominally identical sets of conditions. Because people experience the world subjectively, and make decisions based on those subjective experiences, future research should be aimed at better understanding the differences between these subjective methodologies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group in its series Working Papers with number 200401.

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Length: 16 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2004
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board #1898 pages 61-68
Handle: RePEc:nex:wpaper:weightingwaiting

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Postal: Dept. of Civil Engineering, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455
Phone: +01 (612) 625-6354
Fax: +01 (612) 626-7750
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Related research

Keywords: transportation; travel behavior; driving simulator; ramp meters;

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  1. Lothlorien Redmond & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2001. "The positive utility of the commute: modeling ideal commute time and relative desired commute amount," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 179-205, May.
  2. Bhat, Chandra R., 1995. "A heteroscedastic extreme value model of intercity travel mode choice," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 471-483, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Carrion & David Levinson, 2010. "Value of Travel Time Reliability: A review of current evidence," Working Papers 000085, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  2. Xinkai Wu & David Levinson & Henry Liu, 2008. "Perception of Waiting Time at Signalized Intersections," Working Papers 200909, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  3. Lei Zhang & Feng xie & David Levinson, 2007. "Illusion of Motion: Variation of Subjective Value of Travel Time on Freeways and Ramp Meters," Working Papers 200903, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.


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